Vrikshayurveda is the ancient Indian Science on Plant Life

Vrikshayurveda is a part of Ayurveda, exclusively meant for maintaining the health, healing and productivity of plants. Scattered information on Vrikshayurveda is available in Vedas, Upanishads, Puranas, Epic literature, Samhitas (Ttratise), Buddist literature, Kautilya’s Arthasastra, Krishiparasara, Nighandus (Lexicographic works), and other Ayurvedic literature. Later, these information were compiled and translated by many authors like Surapala, Sarnghadara, Bhavamishra, Nalini Sadhale. Y.L. Nene etc. 

Vrikshayurveda is the art of maintaining the health, healing and productivity of plants. It is scientifically unexplored topic, which is a part of the healing art of India exclusively practiced by the ancient scholars of Ayurveda by adopting purely an organic approach in different sectors like Agriculture, Medicinal plant culture and Horticulture. They also emphasized the importance of Chithreekaranam (Ancient biotechnological interventions/Research) with a view to explore the commercial aspects of the plant world. The terms Bheshajavaidyam and Vrikshayurveda are being mentioned in Agnipurana and Brahatsamhita respectively. Arthasastra written by Kautilya has provided clear-cut guidelines to the rulers for preserving and maintaining public parks, gardens, forests earmarked for hunting, collection of forest resources etc. and these regulations has been brought under the subject Gulmavrishayurveda. According to the Dhanvantari Nighandu, Vriskhayurveda is an indepth study directly linked with various aspects of plant life, especially related to trees. Vrikshayurveda is one of the specialized branches of Ayurveda, specifically meant for the conservation, propagation, cultivation, plant care and development of plant-based processes and products including organic manures, organic liquid manures, biopesticides, growth regulations and promotors that are effectively utilized for healthy germination, nourishment, rejuvenation and treatment of plants.

Ayurveda is a Sastra different from modern science. It deals with physical, mental and spiritual aspects of life systems as a whole in the universe, supported by non-living components like air, soil, water etc. The word Ayu denotes Life and Veda means knowledge. In short, it is described as “Ancient Science of Life”. Ayurveda is not merely a system of medicine. In broader sense, it deals with the whole life system of Universe. Hence, it is universally applicable to all the components of biodiversity and a biodiversity (non-living components). Ayurveda teaches the science of life from micro to macro level. Based on Sankhya and Vaiseshika Philosophy, Ayurveda has been conceptualized with concrete fundamental theories/principles, beginning with the theory of evolution of the Universe (Brahmanda) with entire life forms (Pindanda) prevailing in it; manly human beings, plants, animals and microbes. Ayurveda identifies man as an integral part of nature and stresses the necessity of maintaining complete harmony with all living and abiotic components of the surroundings or environment. In the case of knowledge pertaining to plants or animals, the term Vrikshayurveda (Ancient Science of Plant Life and Plant Care / Ayurvedic arboreal medicine) and Mrigayurveda (Ayurvedic veterinary medicine) are used respectively.

As India and many countries are on the anvil of organic revolution in farming sector, the practices mentioned in the Vrikshayurveda can be made useful to the farming community after conducting field level experiments and studies. Food products and other preparations produced using Vrikshayurvedic techniques could fetch a higher price if suitably branded and marketed nationally and internationally.

Vrikshayurveda provides suitable guidelines to the farmers for selection of suitable soil and maintaining its healthy status, which are essential for the cultivation of specific corps, planting of trees, raising plantation etc. Charaka and Susruta categorically stated that efficacy of vegetable drugs depends on the nature of soil on which they are grown. Therefore, the health of a human being is directly linked with the quality of the soil in which the food for his consumption is grown. Charaka stated that “Man is the product of food”

Chanakya who wrote ‘Arthasastra’ emphasized the care to be taken for sustaining the productivity and described the different types of soils. He also stressed the need to maintain fertility of the soil by applying suitable manures and ameliorants so as to make soil itself an organic manure. This leads to a novel concept in which a nutrient enriched soil will also become an organic input of economic value so that it can be branded and marketed as an alternative to commercially available organic manures.

Vrikshayurveda provides necessary guidelines related to sowing techniques from micro to macro level, which includes collection, quality criteria and seed treatment practices. The other aspects related to sowing techniques mentioned in Vrikshayurveda are preparation of the seed pit, seedbed, aeration of soil before sowing, optimum time of sowing, guidelines for sowing, procedures to be adopted in seed nursery and irrigation techniques.

Beejopti vidhi

Collection, Preservation, Germination and Propagation of Seeds

This section of website mainly focuses on the protocols developed by the ancient Vrikshayurvedic experts based on the information documented in various Ayurvedic textbooks and the outcome of experimental studies carried out by the scholars from time to time. This include guidelines for seed collection, pre and post treatment of seeds, preparation of seed pit, aeration of soil before sowing, suitable time for sowing seeds and planting trees, guidelines of sowing, method of plant propagation etc.

Padapa Vivaksha (Method of Propagation) 

The term “padapa” means a group of plants, which assimilate food and nutrients mainly through their roots. Among this groups, some are propagated through seeds, stem and rhizome. This section deals with plant propagation techniques according to Ayurveda / Vrikshayurveda.

Plant Propagation using seeds (Bijaruha) is a very common method. This has been referred in Rigveda, Atharvaveda and also mentioned by Manu. Propagation using bulbous roots and underground sterm has been described in Arthasastra. Propagation through cuttings (Skandhaja) is another method mentioned in Brihat Samhita and Arthasastra. In Buddha Ghosha, the different methods of propagation have been mentioned as tubers (Mulabijam), cuttings (Skandhaja)/grafting, budding (Agrabijam)/apical parts, leaves (Parnayoni) and seeds (Bijam).

Ropana Vidhanam (Planting Techniques) 

Improper tree planting causes losing of its aesthetic beauty and prosperity.

This technique mainly focuses on the importance of planting, classification of land suitable for planting, classification of plats, preparation of seed pit and seedbed, guidelines for watering, ideal time for sowing, rituals to be performed before sowing, exclusive guidelines for sowing seeds, rules of planting trees, planting distance between plants, seeds and density of seed sowing, folklore etc.

An irrigation calendar based on time, duration, agro-climatic conditions like season, type of soil, type of crop etc. is mentioned in Vrikshayurvedic literature. It is also stressed that, the purity of water has to be maintained.

Rules and Guidelines for watering

Area of this website exclusively details the rules and guidelines for watering according to season and duration.

Duration and time for watering plant species
Sl. No Nature of plants and season (Ritu) Duration/time of watering Remarks
1 Newly planted species Twice-daily- morning and evening Adopt protective measures from excess cold, wind and heat
2 Hemanta and Sisira (Winter) Alternate days  
3 Vasanta (Spring) *Once in a day/**twice daily morning and evening  
4 Greeshmam (Summer) Twice daily- morning and evening  
5 Varsha (rainy) Sarath (Autumn) *Watering only if there is no rain/**when the soil is dry Watering, according to the requirement. Watering is prohibited on the basin of the tree, if the tree suffering from indigestion. This is to be detected based on the rate of adsorption of water poured over the basin of the tree.If it is not adsorbed, it shows that the tree is suffering from indigestion.In this condition watering should be totally restricted.
6 Weeding   The grass, shrubs, herbs, climbers etc, which are growing near the tree, preventing the proper growth of the tree should be removed.
Duration and time of watering plant species
Sl. No. Nature of plants and season (Ritu) Duration/time of watering Remarks
1 Newly planted species (young plants or seedlings) Twice daily- morning and evening for seven days Provide shade for protection from sun. After an interval of every seven days, medicated gruel (krisara) prepared from fish, meat and Tila (Sesamam indicum) is applied (cold form) over the bottom of newly planted species to enhance growth This should be properly protected from heat(sunlight) until coral coloured leaves appear on the newly planted trees.
2 Jangaladesa (region of tropics especially arid zone/ hilly land) Twice daily (morning and evening)up to first two weeks or till the land is irrigated well. Plot plantation should be saturated with water
3 Anoopadesa (aquatic or marshy land) Once daily for five weeks Water should only be sprinkled over the plants
4 Sandharanadesa (plain/medium type land) Twice daily (morning and evening) during first ten alternate days Using little quantity of water is recommended
5 Winter (Hima) Alternate days Irrigate when the plant roots attain stability
6 Vasanta (Sping) Once daily  
7 Grishma (Summer) Thrice daily (Trikalam)  
8 Sarat (autumn) and rainy (varsa) season Apply special recipe when the soil is dry during the fruiting season of trees The juice obtained from the medicinal fruit duly mixed with cow's urine, fat (vasa), milk and other similar liquids, prepared in the form of liquid manure

Poshana vidhi

There are a number of nutraceutical applications prescribed in Vrishayurveda in terms of their preventive, promotional, corrective and curative properties.

Planting trees without providing proper care, will not produce good flowering and fruiting. Therefore this chapter is mainly focusing on the nutritional care and management of tree species.

Various nutritional recipes

Sl. No Ingredients and method of preparation. Mode of administration Indication
1 Vengaduku(Brassica juncea) Broadcast the Vengaduku(Brassica juncea) at the bottom of Kharjuram (Phoenix dactylifera), vilwam(Aegle marmelos) and lukecha (Artocarpus hirsutus). Growth promoter
2 Liquid manure prepared from Pinnyakam (oil cake) of Sesamum indicum and Thushavari(one-day-old rice washed water). Pour the liquid manure at the bottom of Ambra (Mangifera indica). Growth promoter
3 Medicated oil prepared from Nichulum leaves(Barringtonia recemosa). Pour the medicated oil at the bottom of a tree. Growth promoter
4 A medicated decoction prepared from Vreehi (Oryza sativa) and Mamsam(Meat). Apply at the bottom of a wild variety of Prachina amalakam(Phyllanthus emblica) tree. Excellent manure
5 Mixture of milk and water Pour the liquid at the bottom of Balathindukam young plant (Diospyros peregrina). Growth promoter
6 Powder prepared from Yevam(Hordeum vulgare) barely Powder of Yevam applied at the bottom of Naalikera (Cocous nucifera). Excellent manure
7 Liquid bio manure is prepared from the meat of Karangam (Axis axis), Kidi (Sus scrofa) Matsyam(fish), Srigalam (Vulpes bangalensis), Aswam (Equus caballus), milk panchapallavam- leaves of Ambram(Mangifera indica), Jambu(Syzygium cumini), Kapitham (Limonia acidissima), Beeja purakam(Citrus limon), Vilwam(Aegle marmelos) water by boiling all these ingredients by cooling. Pour liquid manure at the bottom of Thenmavu(Mangifera indica) To enhance the aroma and taste of the friut
8 Medicated decoction prepared from gritham(clarified butter), kunapajalam (liquid bio manure*), Vacha (Acorus calamus), Varaha vishta (pig dung) Pour the medicated decoction at the bottom of the Dadima (Punica granatum) Growth promoter
9 A medicated decoction prepared from kulatha (Dolichos biflorus). Pour the medicated decoction at the bottom of the Dadima (Punica granatum) Growth promoter
10 Water used for washing fish Pour the fish washed water at the bottom of the Dadima (Punica granatum) To grow fruiting profusely
11 Paste prepared from triphala- (Harithaki (Terminalia chembula), Vibhuthaki (Terminalia bellirica), Amalaki (Phyllanthus emblica) along with the fat of saphari fish (fat of kozu meen) and ghee(clarified butter) Apply on the branches and young fruits of Dadima (Punica granatum) To increase the fruit size
12 Fumigate with triphala powder Harithaki (Terminalia chembula), Vibhuthaki (Terminalia bellirica), Amalaki (Phyllanthus emblica) Fumigate below the branches and fruits of Dadima (Punica granatum) To increase the fruit size
13 Paste prepared from the fruit of Mangifera indica (Ambrapalam) Apply over the branch and fruit of Dadima (Punica granatum) To increase the fruit size
14 A liquid manure prepared from Dhati(curd) Masthu (water obtained from curd, Kanchikam(one day old rice water used for washing), Sura(self generated alcoholic drink obtained from rice), Badari(Ziziphus mauritiana), Tila (Sesamum indicum), Medika (Trigonella foenumgraecum), Kunapajalam(liquid bio manure) and seethu(self generated alcoholic drink obtained from sugar cane juice and milk) Pour the liquid manure at the basin of Phaline (Callicarpa tomentosa), Kadambam (Neolamarckia cadambam), Karikesaram/Nagapoo (Mesua ferrea) To enhance the flowering and aroma of the flowers
15 Medicated decotion prepared from Priyangu(Callicarpa tomentosa) Kunjaphalam (Abrus precatorius), Nimba(Azadirachta indica), Pippali (Piper longum) Vacha(Acorus calamus), Haridra (Curcuma longa), Tila(Sesamum indicum), Sarshapa(Brassica juncae) (all in equal quantity) - prepared in the form of powder, mixed with the decoction prepared from Aswakarna(Terminalia paniculata) added with gritham (clarified butter) Pour the medicated decoction at the bottom of Chembaka(Magnolia champaca), Nagavriksha (Mesua ferrea) Growth promoter
16 Kukundanampureesham(chicken manure), expressed juice of meat(Mamsa rasam), one-day-old rice washed water(kanchikam).   Enhances the growth and fruiting of Gosthani(Vitis vinifera)
17 Padddy straw Paddy straw is prepared in the form of rope and tied over the branches of Panasam (Artocarpus heterophyllus) followed by pouring of the decoction prepared from vacha (Acorus calamus) over the rope For profuse fruiting
18 Prepared in the form of liquid manure from Sarppis (clarified butter), Gudam(jaggery), Ksheeram (milk) and Madhu(honey) Pou the liquid manure at the bottom of the trees of Kapitham(Limonia acidissima), Vilwam (Aegle marmelos). To make the fruit more fleshy with fewer seeds and sweet taste
19 A medicated decoction prepared from leaves and root of Koshataki (Luffa aegyptica) and expressed juice of fresh meat, mixed with powder of Thippali(Piper longum). Pour at the bottom of the Madhuka tree (Madhuca neriifolia)and Fumigate with above mentioned ingredients, prepared in the form of powder. To produce beautiful, good quality flowers
20 Medicated water prepared from Tila(Sesamaaum indicum), Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra) and Madhu (honey) mixed with kunapajala (liquid manure). Pour the medicated water mixed with kunapajala(liquid bio manure) at the bottom of the tree. To enhance the sweetness of Badari(Ziziphus rugosa) fruit.
21 A mixture prepared from the dung of Ajam (Ovis aries), Aeadakam (kuriyad), Sukaram(Sus scrofa), Vidangam(Embelia ribes), Kinnuavm(sedimentation obtained from toddy). Apply the mixture at the bottom of Beejapura (Citrus lemon) and pour the urine of Aswam (Equus caballus) and Avi(goat) To enhance fruiting irrespective of the season
22 The sting of vrichika (Pandinus imperator), Gritam(clarified butter), fat of mooshika(Rattus rattus) and Kola(sus scrofa) The sting of vrichika (Pandinus imperator), should be incised on the dtem of climbers/twiners followed by fumigation at the same spot with Gritam(clarified butter). Furthur, fat of pig and rat are applied. According to surapala fumigation is to be carried out of with Saphari matsya (specific kind of fish) mixed with ghee. This is to be followed by sprinkling rat and pig fat. For fruiting profusely
23 Gomoothram (cow's urine), Kunapajalam (liquid bio manure) Apply the liquid bio manure at the bottom of Kethaki (Pandanus odoratissimus). To enhance the aroma of the Kethaki (Pandannus odoratissimus) flowers during the rainy season.
24 Scented soil is prepared by adding flowers having aromatic qualities, either alone or in combination. Apply scented soil, in larger quantity at the bottom of the tree. To induce aroma in flowers
25 Medicated water prepared from Kushta (Saussurea lappa), Pathram (Pogostemon heyneanus), Muramanchi (Sanseveria roxburghiana), Mustha (Cyperus rotundus), Tagaram(Valeriana wallichii) and Useeram(Crysopogon zizanioides) Apply medicated water at the bottom of the tree for a period of 1 month. Induces scent in unscented flowers
26 Powder from Kanmasham (half-cooked black gram), tusk of the elephant. Apply the powder in the lotus pond To enhance the flowering of Padmini(Nelumbo nucifera) irrespective of the season.
27 Powder from the dung of Sidhartham (Brassica juncae), Kadalidalam (leaves of Musa paradisiaca), Saphari(kozhumeen), Kola (Sus scrofa)Marjaram (Felis catus), mixed with gritham(clarified butter). Apply over the roots and fumigate with the same ingredients To improve the overall health of the trees and to cure diseases. To promote the growth of healthy tender leaves and for profuse flowering
28 A medicated decoction prepared from Ankolam(Alangium salvifolium) mixed with gritham(clarified butter), Mashikam(honey) fat of Kidi(Sus scrofa), Kunga (Axis axis) and Sidharthaka(Brassica juncea) Pour at the basin of the tree Trees grow without being affected any diseases, it also acts as a growth promoter
29 1. Fumigate with gritham(clarified butter). 2. Medicated water Yavam (Hordeum valgare). 3. A mixture of milk and water Kunapajalam(Liquid bio manure). 4. Paste prepared from the powder of Viadanga(Embelia ribes) and Tila (Sesamum indicum) along with milk or kunapajalam All five preparation is recommended for the growth of young trees Growth promoters
30 The special recipe is popularly known as Kunapajala. This liquid manure was extensively used in ancient days. The recipe mentioned in different texts varies slightly in terms of its ingredients. The ingredients of Kunapajala are flesh, fat and bone marrow of Kunga (Axis axis) Kidi (Sus scrofa), matsya (fish) Masham (Vigna Mungo) kuriyadu (dwarf variety) and Chagalam (tall variety), Khadgi (walmrigam). All these ingredients are boiled with water and transferred to a separate vessel followed by adding milk and powder of tila (Sesamum indicum) along with Mashikam (Honey) and cooked Masha (Vigna mungo) mixed in water. Finally, add gritham and hot water. The entire mixture is placed in sunlight or in a hot place for 15 days. The liquid manure thus prepared is called Kunapajala.It is to be noted that the quantity of each ingredient is not mentioned. Another option given is to use substitutes of these ingredients based on the directions of a vrikshayurvedic expert Pour the liquid bio manure at the basin of the tree and plant species Excellent growth promoter and immune enhancer
31 Milk Pour at the basin of the trees To enhance the sweetness of the fruit.
32 Preparation of Kunapajala according to Kashyapala. The following are the ingredients:- dung of Aja (Capra aegagrus)- 2 prastha, Dung of Avi (Ovis aries) -2 prastha , Tila (Sesamum indicum)- 1 Adakam, Skuthu-1 prastha, Go mamsa (meat of Bos taurus) - are diluted with 100 times water and kept for seven days. Pour the liquid bio manure at the basin of the tree and plant species at least for seven days Excellent growth promoter and immune enhancer
33 Preparation of Kunapajala according to Kashyapala. The following are the ingredients:- dung of Aja (Capra aegagrus)- 2 prastha, Dung of Avi (Ovis aries) -2 prastha, Tila (Sesamum indicum)- 1 Adakam, Skuthu-1 prastha, Go mamsa (meat of Bos taurus)- are diluted with 100 times water and kept for seven days. Pour the liquid bio manure at the basin of trees and plant species at least for seven days. Excellent growth promoter and immune enhancer
34 Medicated juice is prepared from the fruits of Ankola (Alangium salviifolium), along with Gritha (clarified butter), madhu (honey) and Sukara vasa (pig fat). Medicated juice applied at the bottom of the mango tree. For the production of sweet and tasty mango and to increase the size of the mango.
35 Medicated water/decoction is prepared from the flesh of Go (Bos taurus), Kola (Sus scrofa) and Sisumara (Crocodylus porosus). Irrigate medicated water at the bottom of Nalikera (Cocos nucifera), puga (Areca catechu), Kharjura (Pheonix dactylifera), Thaada (Borassus flabellifer) and other similar palm varieties. To enhance the quality and quantity of fruits
36 Saphari (special kind of fish) is mixed with the powder of Tila (Sesamum indicum) and made into a paste. Liquid bio manure is prepared from Vidanga (Embelia ribes), Levana (salt), Tila (Sesamum indicum), kshoudra (honey), mamsa (meat), Asava (medicated liquid), Sura (medicated self generated alcoholic drink) and Maireya (medicated self generated alcoholic drink). Externally applied on the top and bottom of the tree during the night. To enhance the production of good quality nuts and to increase the size of nuts.
37 Ksharodhaka (medicated alkaline water) is mixed with powder of Yava (Hordeum valgare), Tushajala (Paddy husk mixed with water) and Masha yusha (soup of black grams). Pour the mixture of Ksharodhaka at the base of coconut palm Enhancement of the production of good quality coconuts and to increase the size of the nuts.
38 Medicated water is prepared from Sita siddhardhaka toya (Bracica alba), Yava (Hordeum valgare), Tushajala (Paddy husk) and Pinnyaka (oil seeds cake). Pour the medicated water at the basin of trees like Kharjura (Pjoenix sylvestris), kamala (Nelumbo nucifera), Dramala and Kusa (Desmostachya bipinnata). To correct the nutritional deficiency
39 Aliquid bio manure is prepared from the flesh of Marjara (Felis catus), Casa (Coracias bengalaensis), Harina (Axis axis), Sukara vasa (fat of pig) and Mahishi dugdha (milk of buffalo) .Pour liquid manure at the basin of the tree Production of quality fruits.To increase the size of Dadima (Punica granatum) fruit.
40 A bio-manure is prepared from the flesh of animals; Pheru (extinct animal)? And Sita (sugar/ sugar candy). Apply manure at the basin of Dadima (Punica Granatum) tree. To enhance the sweetness of the fruit. To increase the size of the fruit.
41 A bio-manure is prepared in the form of paste with the ingredients- Gritham (clarified butter),Kshoudram (honey) and Saphari (a fish variety). Apply externally over the trunk of Dadima (Punica Granatum) tree. To produce high quality, tasty, juicy fruits of Dadima (Punica granatum)
42 Fumigate with triphala powder Harithaki (Terminalia chembula), Vibhuthaki (Terminalia bellirica), Amalaki (Phyllanthus emblica) Fumigate in and around trees To produce high-quality fruits. To increase the size of fruits and yield
43 A mixture of Saphari fish with milk diluted in water Administered in a higher dose and poured at the basin of tree For profuse fruiting
44 Fumigate with flowers of Sarshapam (Brassica alba), Arjuna (Terminalia Arjuna) along with with meat of rabbit (Lepus nigricollis), Vidanga (Embelia ribes) and Red Curcuma (Curcuma Zedoaria). Fumigate around trees To cure diseases and for profuse flowering and fruiting
45 Fumigate with Kadalidalam (plantain leaves), Sarshapam (Brassica juncae) and karimeen (Etroplus suratensis). Fumigate around trees To promote early flowering and fruiting
46 Medicated water prepared from the fat of deer, pig mixed with honey, clarified butter and tender leaves of neerkadamb (Mitragyna parvifolia). Pour the medicated water around the basin of trees To promote early flowering and fruiting
47 Paste prepared from Gritham (clarified butter), Vidanga (Embelia ribes), milk and water and honey Apply externally at the bottom of the tree To promote early flowering and fruiting and also to get quality flowers and fruits
48 1. Gritham (clarified butter) mixture of Yavam (Hordeum valgare) Krisara (cooked rice prepared from rice, Tila (Sesamam indicum) and milk, Pachotti (Symplocos cochinchinesis) and honey 2. Tila (Sesamum indicum), honey and Yevam (Hordeum valgare) 3. Milk and water 4. Medicated self-generated alcoholic drink 1. Smeared with Gritham at the bottom portion of Perumthudari (Ziziphus mauritiana), Ayani (Autocarpus hirsutus), Lantha (Ziziphus mauritiana), nelli (Phyllanthus embilica) and Njaval (Syzygium cumini) 2. Smeared with the paste prepared from Krisara along with Pachotti (Symplocos cochinchinensis) and honey is applied over the bottom portion of the tree for 12 days. 4. During the flowering period pour milk and pour a medicated alcoholic drink at the basin of the tree. High yield of fruits (1-4) To produce big-sized tasty fruits (5)
49 A mixture prepared from Jaggery Gritham (clarified butter) Paya (milk) and Madhu (honey) Pour at the basin of trees Koovalam (Aegle marmelos) and Vlar maram (Limonia acidissima) Profuce fruiting
50 1. Ash prepared from Paddy Straw and cow dung 2. Kunapajalam 3. To increase  size of the banana 1. Pour the residue at the basin of the tree and cover with soil 2. Pour Kunapajalam on the soil To increase the size of the banana
51 Fumigate with powder of Tagaram (Valeriana walichii), kushta (Saussurea lappa and Ajadanyam (Lepidium sativum) Fumigate around and at the bottom of the tree. To promote quick flowering and fruiting and also to get good quality flowers and fruits
52 Fat of python (Python seabae) and snake Applied externally on the trunk and bottom of the tree Growth stimulator
53 A medicated decoction prepared from milk, meat, fish, cow dung, red rice (chennellu), kinnwam (sedimentation obtained from toddy) mixed with powder of Tila (Sesamum indicum) Pour the medicated decoction at the basin of Mathala narakam (Punika granatum) To enhance the size of the fruit and to make it soft and fleshy and tasty
54 Fumigate with the ponded mixture prepared from the bark (powder) of azhinijil (Alangium saviifolium), meat, root and leaves of Katttupeechii (Luffa aegyptiaca) Fumigated with the pounded mixture To produce beautiful flowers from the plant species Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra).
55 A mixture prepared from Godhumam(Titicum aestivum), Thakram (butter milk), Curd, Lantha kuru (seeds of Ziziphus rugosa), Tila (Sesamum indicum), Madhyam(Self generated alcoholic drink), milk and Kunapajalam Pour the mixture at the basin of the plant species/trees- Amrit (Tinospora cordifolia), Kadambam (Neolamarckia cadamba) and Nagavriksha (Mesua ferrea) To produce aromatic flowers
56 Medicated water is prepared from Jambu (Syzygium cumini), Asokham (Saraca asoca), useeram (Chrysopogon zizaniodes) and Mustha (Cyperus rotundus) along with Sura (self-generated alcoholic drink) Pour the mixture at the basin of the plant Profuce flowering
57 Mixture of aromatic water prepared from spices e.g. Elam (Elettaria cardamomum), and soup prepared from meat Pour the aromatic water and soap mixture at the basin of Kitha (Pandanus odorifer) Profuce flowering
58 Madhyam (medicate self generated alcoholic drink) Pour the medicated alcoholic drink at the basin of mulla (Jasmium sambac), kanaveeran (Nerium indicum) and ponkurinji (yellow coloured flower Strobilanthes sp.) Profuce flowering
59 Gomoothram(cow's urine) Pour cow urine (approximately 60 ml) at the basin of Valli mulla (Jasminum multiflorum) Profuce flowering
60 Prepare a mixture of Gopaya (cow's milk) and cold water Pour the mixture at the basin of Pathiri (Bignonia suaveolens) For profuse flowering and attract bees
61 A mixture of flesh and water Pour the mixture at the basin of Karpasam (Gossypium hirsutum) Profuce flowering
62 A mixture prepared from milk, Thila (Sesamum indicum), cow dung and water Pour the mixture at the profuse flowering basin of Mulla (Jasminum sambac), Saptachata (Alstonia scholaris) Profuce flowering
63 A mixture prepared from meat, flesh of fish and water Pour the mixture at the profuse flowering basin of Chemanthi (Crysanthemum indicum) Profuse flowering
64 Fumigate with bone and dung of pig Fumigate around the Valya vellari (Cucumis sativus), Churakka (Lageneria siceraria), Kumbalam (Benincasa hispida) and Vellari (Cucumis sativus) Profuce fruiting
65 One day old rice gruel Por at the basin of Churakka (Lageneria siceraria) Profuce fruiting
66 Fumigation with paddy straw followed by application of mixture prepared with Tila (Sesamum indicum) and water Fumigate and pour the mixture at the basin of Padavalam (Trichosanthes anguina) during the month of phalguna. The plant will fruit during the same month. Profuce fruiting
67 Prepare ashes from side branches of the trees growing in the middle of the paddy field The well-powdered ashes are put in a porous cloth, made into a bundle and sprinkled over the paddy field. To prevent water retention due to dew
68 A paste of Rakthasali (medicinal rice) and curd Spread in and around the paddy fields To prevent water retention due to froth
69 Pounded mass of Masha (Vigna mungo) Pounded mass is placed around the basin of the tree To promote the growth of age damalaki (Phyllanthus emblica)
70 A mixture of milk and water Pour the mixture at the basin of young Tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) Growth promoter
71 Mixture of curd (Dhathi), Masthu (watery portion of curd), Thagaram (Valeriana wallichii), Kanji (rice gruel), Sura (medicated self generated alcoholic drink prepared from grains), Entha (Phoenix pussilla), Tila (Sesamum indicum), Methika (Trigonella foenum-graecum), Kunapajala (Bio liquid manure), medicated self generated alcoholic drinks from lkshu(Saccharum officinarum) and milk Pour the mixture at the bottom of the trees- Njazhal (Callicarpa tomentosa), Kadambam (Neolamarckia cadamba) and Naga kesaram (Mesua ferrea) Profuse flowering
72 Bio liquid manure made from Njazhal (Callicarpa tomentosa), Gunja (Abrus precatorius), Nimba (Citrus limon), Pipali(Piper longum), Vacha (Acorus calamus), Nisa (Curcuma longa), Tila (Sesamum indicum), Sarshapa (Brassica juncae), Gritham (clarified butter), and expressed juice of Maruthu (Terminalia paniculata) All the ingredients are to be taken in equal quantity, prepared in the form of bio liquid manure and poured at the basin of Chembaka (Magnolia champaca) and Nagavriksham (Mesua ferrea) Growth promoter
73 A mixture of Koshataki (Luffa acutangula) - leaves and stem bark, Mamsam(meat) Pippali ( Piper longum) and fumigated water Meat is boiled with koshataki leaves (Luffa acutangula) and poured at athe bottom of the illippa (Madhuca longifolia) followed by sprinkling of Pour the mixture at the bottom of trees Njazhal (Callicarpa tomentosa), Kadambam (Neolamarckia cadamba) and Naga kesaram (Mesua ferrea) powder of Pipali (Piper longum) around the basin of the tree and irrigated with fumigated water Profuse flowering
74 1. medicated water of Tila (Sesamum indicum), Yeshtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra), llippa (Madhuca nerifolia), madhu(Honey) 2. Kunapajala Pour the medicated water at the basin of Lantha (Ziziphus mauritiana). Then sprinkle Kunapajala To enhance the sweetness of the fruit
75 1. Liquid bio manure prepared from dung of Kolad (Capra aegagrus), Chemariyadu (Ovis aries), panni (Sus scrofa), seeds of Vidanga (Embelia ribes) added with Knnwam (sedimentation obtained from toddy) 2. Aswa moothra ( horse urine) and water Pour the liquid bio manure in and around the basin of Narakam (Citrus lemon) and irrigate with horse urine and water Profuse fruiting
76 Sugantha jalam (Aromatic water) Kunapajalam Pour the aromatic water over Kapitha (Limonia acidissima) during the summer season. This will promote the growth of numerous tender leaves Growth promoter

Drumaraksha deals with the protective measures to be adopted to save the plant species from severe winter, drought, thunderstorm, flood, smoke, excess heat, pollution, pest/insect attack etc.


Plant protection

Plant protection measures for trees were widely practiced by the Vrikshayurvedic experts since time immemorial. They described various protective measures of trees from Neeharam (dew), Chandavattam (cyclone), Dhoomam (fumes), Vaisvanaram (fire), Jalakaran (spider), etc.

Guidelines for planting and protecting trees

  • Trees should be planted in a straight line and the middle portion of the plot should be exclusively earmarked for edible fruit trees. Behind this, it is recommended to plant other suitable trees. There should be a bio fencing around the border of the plantation and trenches should be dug to prevent the attack of wild animals.
  • Ash collected from trees, burned by lighting is spread at the basin of trees to prevent problems due to dew
  • Ash obtained from trees affected by lighting is used as a good fire fighter.
  • It is also considered as an excellent fire protector for trees.
  • To prevent trees from environmental pollution, heavy rain, toxic rain (Garavrishti); Sitasalyodanam (cooked with rice) along with curd and Saindhavam(rock salt) is spread in and around the trees.
  • To prevent pest attack, install a vibration device (made of Borassus flabellifer leaves) charged with 108 times potentiated mantras, and is placed under the cultivated land to protect crops from insects, rats, ant, etc.

Criteria adopted for diagnosis of plant diseases

According to Vrikshayurveda, similar to human beings diseases occur in plant species through Nija (endogenous) and Agantu (exogenous) causes. Endogenous diseases are caused due to the aggravation and depletion of Vata, Pitta, and Kapha while exogenic diseases occur due to infections, injuries, burns, fractures, natural calamities, etc.

Narna miva vrikshanam vata pitta kaphat gada:

Sambhavati nirupyaata: kariyat tat doshamasanam.”

Based on the physical characters, signs and symptoms of the diseases, a Vrikshayurvedic physician should identify, assess and analyze the degree of aggravation and depletion of the Doshas, and should prescribe remedies accordingly by utilizing the plants, animal products and minerals in various form to pacify the aggravated or depleted Doshas to regain or restore the health or to cure the plants affected by the diseases.

The details are given below highlight the Etiopathology, physical characters including specific signs and symptoms of each Dosha under Vatavyadhi (diseases due to the vitiation of Vata), Pittavyadhi (diseases due to the vitiation of pitta) and Kaphavyadhi (diseases due to the vitiation of Kapha).

The etiopathology, physical characters including specific signs and symptoms of each Dosha under Vatavyadhi

Sl. No.

Name of Doshas


Physical appearance, Signs and symptoms



Examining the soil conditions is one of the important criteria adopted for detecting aggravation/depletion of Vata properties in the soil; predominance of dryness (ruksha), astringent taste (kashayam) etc.

Feeding of substances having the above properties (Guna) causes diseases due to vitiation of Vata.

Excess irrigation also causes Vata.

1. Vata predominant plant species are


-thin (Krisa)

2. Atrophy/deformity in



-branches (Sthamba/Kanda/ Skandha/ Sakha)

3. Galndular formations (Granthi) in


-leaves (Pathra) Rough/hard fruit and other parts

5. Deficiency in


-juice and

-taste of fruits (Aswaduphala)



1. Aggravation of pitta dosha appears generally during the summer (Grishma) and autumn (Vasanta) seasons.

2. Excess administration of substances possessing alkaline (ksariya/khanija), pingent (katu), sour (amla), salty (lavaniya) and Sahrp (theekshana) properties causes vitiation of pitta dosha.

1. Unhealthy physical appearance with the untimely occurrence of pale leaves (pitapatrata- akala)

2. Falling of immature fruits (Phalsrava)

3. Wilting of plants due to diseases affecting the roots (Padavisoshana)

4. The unhealthy physical appearance of leaves- flowers- fruits (Patra- phushpa- phala malinatva) due to environmental pollution.

5. Untimely yellowing and falling of leaves which leads to the destruction of plants (Patradi sadana)



Administration of substances that are sweet (madhura), unctuous (snigdha), sour (amla) and cold dominating potency (seethaveerya) in excess causes kaphaja diseases. Plants are more susceptible to kaphaja diseases in winter and spring.

1. Delay in fruiting (Athika- laphalata)

2. Paleness of leaves, fruits (Pandutva)

3. Curved leaves (Kubja patrata)

4. Stunted growth of fruits (Avrddhi)

5. Untimely fruiting (Akalaphalita)

6. Tasteless fruit (Nirasata)

(Surapala, including selected portions from Brihatsamhita, Lokopara)

Other etiological factors

External injury with axe causes vitiation of kapha, produces oozing from the stem, which gradually weakens the trees/plant species

Improper care leads to diseases due to vata

Due to the vitiation of vat, pitta and kapha jaundice occur in trees and plants, causes yellowing especially on stem, root, and leaves.

Unviable seeds, improper care and external injuries cause vitiation of vata, pitta and kapha, which leads to infertility

Lack of absorption and accumulation of water will directly affect the growth of tender leaves.

Presence of ants around the tree for a longer period will cause damage to the tree

Fire, wind, friction between trees, growing under the shade, inhabited with large group of birds near the tree, presence of woody climbers over the trees and growth of grass shrubs under the tree also affects its health.

Criteria fro the identification of various constitutions of plants (Prakriti).

In Vrikshayurveda plants are classified into vata, pitta and kapha, prakriti like human beings.

Vrikshayurveda Classification of plants under Vata, pitta and kapha prakriti



Physical characters




-slender (krisam)

-tall, (deerkam)

-light in weight (lakhu)

-rough surface (ruksham)

-suffering from insomnia (nidraheenam)

-unhealthy appearance

-lack flowering and fruiting

Tolerance to heat



-have more branches

-branches break away frequently

-yield fruits

-some times fruits ripen untimely

-aneamic (pandu)

-abundant leaves and flowers

-trees medium size and height

Intolerance to withstand bright sunlight



-stout bulky stems and branches

-plenty of thick leaves

-profuse flowering and fruiting

-circular trees stem

-fruits are beautiful and tasty

Treating plant disease is described in the monumental work Brihat Samhita of Varahamihira as well as Agnipurna, Vrikshayurveda of Surapala, Lokapakara and Sarangadhara Padhathi of Sarangadhara, which have a wealth of information on the treatment of plant diseases.

This includes aetiology of diseases based on Tridosa theory of Ayurveda, diagnosis of Prakriti (constitutions/genetical expressions) in plants, treatment of plant diseases based on Vataja, Pitaja and Kaphaja diseases, treatment for indigestion, treatment for wind-displaced trees having fracture, wounds etc, treatment of tree affected or struck by lightning, geriatric care of plants, treatment of tissue wasting diseases, disinfectant recipes etc.


Arboreal medicines- biological control and treatment

This is one of the important chapters of Vrikshyurveda. It deals with various methods of treatment adopted for plant diseases based on the monumental works like Brihat Samhita, Agni purana, Vrikshyurveda of Surapala. Lokopakara and Sarangadhara padhati. According to Gunaratna, “just as the human body is subject to jaundice, dropsy, emaciation and defects of the finger, nose, etc., plants too suffer form similar diseases such as displacement or dislocation of flower, fruit, leaves, bark. By the application of appropriate remedies prescribed in Vrikshayurveda, unnatural growth, deterioration, wounds, fractures etc., can be cured in plants”: (Haribhadra, 1905)

The table given below shows the rasa (various active principles) based on therapeutic action. This will help to select apt dug for treatment vataja, pittaja and kaphaja group of plant diseases. Similarly the selection of drugs based on Guna (properties), Veerya (potency), Vipaka (in vipo effect) and Prabhava (specific/target based action) is to be worked out for the treatment of plant diseases.

The therapeutic action of different rasa’s

Name of raga

Action on Trinidad


Aggravate kapha

Deplete Vata Pitta


Aggravate pitha

Deplete Vata


Aggravate Pitta kapha

Deplete Vata


Aggravate Vata pitta

Deplete Kapha


Aggravate Vata

Deplete Pitta Kapha


Aggravate Vata

Deplete Pitta Kapha

The various disease pattern and their treatment and application

Sl. No.

Disease pattern





Vatja group


Irrigate with a mixture, prepared using the expressed juice obtained from flesh, fat and tallow, mixed with ghee and made into liquid manure.


Fumigate with Nimba (Azadirachta indica), cow’s horn, horse hair, ghee, Ativisha (aconitum heteropyllum) and oil, pig’s fat, Satavari (Asparagus racemosus) and Devadaru (Cedrus deodara). Fumigate with leaves of Nirgundi (Vitex negundo).Fumigate with Gugul (Commiphora mukul), Gritham (clarified butter) and seeds of Ajakarna (Terminalia tomentosa)


The tumors and protuberances occurring on the trunk/branches should be removed followed by plastering. The ingredients of the plaster are cow dung, Bhallataka (Semicarpus anacardium) and fat, watered with carrion broth.


Pour an infusion prepared from Rasna (Alpinia galanga), Aswaganda (Withiania somnifera), Naga kesaram (Mesua ferrea), Pipali (Piper longum)


Medicated water or an infusion prepared from Karambha (Foeniculum vulgare) and Ajamoda (Anethum graviolens).


Paste prepared from the dung of goat and oil cake is smeared over the roots as poultice

Pacifying procedures

Pour a mixture prepared from gritham (clarified butter) along with meat (Mamsa) juice and fat(meda) to pacify Vata dosha


Pittaja group


Pour the medicated decoction prepared from Madhuyashti (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Madhuca (Madhuca indica), and milk mixed with honey. Pour the medicated decoction prepared from Triphala (Hareethaki Terminalia chebula), Amalaki Phyllathus emblica) and Vibhitaki (Terminalia bellercia) mixed with gritham and honey.


Nurture with a mixture and prepared from cold and perfumed rose water, Vidanga (Embelia ribes) and sugar


Fumigate with sugar, honey and Gritham (clarified butter). Fumigate with aromatic substances like Chandanam (Santalum album), Useera (Chrysopogon zizanioidoes) etc.

Medicated decoction

Pour medicated decoction prepared from Useera (Chrysopogon zizanioides), Musta (Cyperus rotundus) and add honey, milk and ghee.

Pacifying procedures

Administer substances having sweet, taste, unctuous (snigdha) property (guna) in cold water.


Kaphaja group


A paste prepared from Sarshapa (Brassica juncae) and sugar is smeared over the roots and then the plant is irrigated with water mixed with the ashes of Tila (Sesamum indicum)

Soil replacement

The mud and soil around the tree suffering from Kaphaja diseases is removed and replaced with dry and hard soil.


Nurture luke warm water at the bottom of the tree which is affected with Kaphaja diseases.


Pour an infusion prepared from the barks of Parisah/Nandi (Ficus arnottiana), Udumbara (Ficus racemosa) and Saptaparn (Alstonia scholais), Nimba (Azadirachta indica), Vacha (Acoros calamus), Musta (Cyperus rotundos) and Amoora rohithuka/Aphanamixis polystachya.


Dress with the paste prepared from oil cake of Sweta sarshapa (Barssica juncea) over the affected portion of the root and irrigate with the medicated water from ashes of Sesamum indicum

Pacifying procedures

Administer pungent (katu) and thiktha (bitter)/astringent (kashaya rasam) taste dominated drugs and Ruksha guna (drying properites) luke warm water to pacify Kaphaja diseases

Selection of plants for homesteads based on their positive/negative energy

(Nivasa sanna tharu subha – asubha lakshanam)

Section of this website mainly deals with guidelines related to planting trees nearby houses based on their positive and negative energy.

Area of this website exclusively deals with do's and donts of planting rees at homestead level.

Nivasa sanna tharu subha-asubha lakhanam




  • Do not plant Peepal (Ficus religiosa), locally known as Arayal on the eastern side of the house.
  • Do not plant Plaksham (Ficus microcarpa), locally known as Ithi on the southern side of the house.
  • Do not plant Nygrodham (Ficus bengalensis), locally known as Peral on the western side of the house.
  • Do not plant Udumbaram (Ficus racemosa), locally known as Athi on the northern side of the house.
  • One should not plant trees very close to the house so that no shadow fall on the house.
  • Trees should not be planted in front of the house.
  • Do not plant the following trees/plants within the immediate boundary of the house: Bedari (Zizyphus mauritiana), Kadaly(Musa Paradisiaca), Dadimam (Punica granatum) and Beejapoorakam (Cirtus medica)
  • Other trees prohibited for planting near residents are Palasam (Butea monosperma), Kanchanar (Baubinia variegata), Sleshamathakam (Cordia myxa), Arjuna (Terminalia cuneata) and Kranja (Pongamia pinnata).
  • Thorny plants are not recommended to be planted near the residence.
  • Latex bearing plants are not advisable to be planted near the residence, since it may affect wealth/money generation.
  • Fruit bearing plants are also not recommended near the residence.
  • Neeli (Indigofera tinctoria) and Haridra (Curcuma longa) are not recommended to be grown near the residence.
  • Construction of Upavanas (small garden) is prohibited at the southern side, south west corner (Nairathyam) and south east corner (Agneyam). In case it is constructed, it is said that negative energy will be released. Therefore one should construct Upvanam in the western, northern or eastern side of the house. It is believed that this will produce positive energy and enhance health, wealth and progeny.
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