Arboreal Medicines (Taruchikitsa)

Arboreal Medicines (Taruchikitsa)

Arboreal Medicines (Taruchikitsa) (3)

Treating plant disease is described in the monumental work Brihat Samhita of Varahamihira as well as Agnipurna, Vrikshayurveda of Surapala, Lokapakara and Sarangadhara Padhathi of Sarangadhara, which have a wealth of information on the treatment of plant diseases.

This includes aetiology of diseases based on Tridosa theory of Ayurveda, diagnosis of Prakriti (constitutions/genetical expressions) in plants, treatment of plant diseases based on Vataja, Pitaja and Kaphaja diseases, treatment for indigestion, treatment for wind-displaced trees having fracture, wounds etc, treatment of tree affected or struck by lightning, geriatric care of plants, treatment of tissue wasting diseases, disinfectant recipes etc.

Tarushikitsa

Arboreal medicines- biological control and treatment

This is one of the important chapters of Vrikshyurveda. It deals with various methods of treatment adopted for plant diseases based on the monumental works like Brihat Samhita, Agni purana, Vrikshyurveda of Surapala. Lokopakara and Sarangadhara padhati. According to Gunaratna, “just as the human body is subject to jaundice, dropsy, emaciation and defects of the finger, nose, etc., plants too suffer form similar diseases such as displacement or dislocation of flower, fruit, leaves, bark. By the application of appropriate remedies prescribed in Vrikshayurveda, unnatural growth, deterioration, wounds, fractures etc., can be cured in plants”: (Haribhadra, 1905)

The table given below shows the rasa (various active principles) based on therapeutic action. This will help to select apt dug for treatment vataja, pittaja and kaphaja group of plant diseases. Similarly the selection of drugs based on Guna (properties), Veerya (potency), Vipaka (in vipo effect) and Prabhava (specific/target based action) is to be worked out for the treatment of plant diseases.

The therapeutic action of different rasa’s

Name of raga

Action on Trinidad

Madhura

Aggravate kapha

Deplete Vata Pitta

Amla

Aggravate pitha

Deplete Vata

Lavana

Aggravate Pitta kapha

Deplete Vata

Katu

Aggravate Vata pitta

Deplete Kapha

Thikta

Aggravate Vata

Deplete Pitta Kapha

Kashaya

Aggravate Vata

Deplete Pitta Kapha

The various disease pattern and their treatment and application

Sl. No.

Disease pattern

Treatment

protocol

Application

1

Vatja group

Irrigation

Irrigate with a mixture, prepared using the expressed juice obtained from flesh, fat and tallow, mixed with ghee and made into liquid manure.

Fumigation

Fumigate with Nimba (Azadirachta indica), cow’s horn, horse hair, ghee, Ativisha (aconitum heteropyllum) and oil, pig’s fat, Satavari (Asparagus racemosus) and Devadaru (Cedrus deodara). Fumigate with leaves of Nirgundi (Vitex negundo).Fumigate with Gugul (Commiphora mukul), Gritham (clarified butter) and seeds of Ajakarna (Terminalia tomentosa)

Plastering

The tumors and protuberances occurring on the trunk/branches should be removed followed by plastering. The ingredients of the plaster are cow dung, Bhallataka (Semicarpus anacardium) and fat, watered with carrion broth.

Infusion

Pour an infusion prepared from Rasna (Alpinia galanga), Aswaganda (Withiania somnifera), Naga kesaram (Mesua ferrea), Pipali (Piper longum)

Watering

Medicated water or an infusion prepared from Karambha (Foeniculum vulgare) and Ajamoda (Anethum graviolens).

Poultice

Paste prepared from the dung of goat and oil cake is smeared over the roots as poultice

Pacifying procedures

Pour a mixture prepared from gritham (clarified butter) along with meat (Mamsa) juice and fat(meda) to pacify Vata dosha

2

Pittaja group

Irrigation

Pour the medicated decoction prepared from Madhuyashti (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Madhuca (Madhuca indica), and milk mixed with honey. Pour the medicated decoction prepared from Triphala (Hareethaki Terminalia chebula), Amalaki Phyllathus emblica) and Vibhitaki (Terminalia bellercia) mixed with gritham and honey.

Nurturing

Nurture with a mixture and prepared from cold and perfumed rose water, Vidanga (Embelia ribes) and sugar

Fumigation

Fumigate with sugar, honey and Gritham (clarified butter). Fumigate with aromatic substances like Chandanam (Santalum album), Useera (Chrysopogon zizanioidoes) etc.

Medicated decoction

Pour medicated decoction prepared from Useera (Chrysopogon zizanioides), Musta (Cyperus rotundus) and add honey, milk and ghee.

Pacifying procedures

Administer substances having sweet, taste, unctuous (snigdha) property (guna) in cold water.

3

Kaphaja group

Irrigation

A paste prepared from Sarshapa (Brassica juncae) and sugar is smeared over the roots and then the plant is irrigated with water mixed with the ashes of Tila (Sesamum indicum)

Soil replacement

The mud and soil around the tree suffering from Kaphaja diseases is removed and replaced with dry and hard soil.

Nurturing

Nurture luke warm water at the bottom of the tree which is affected with Kaphaja diseases.

Infusion

Pour an infusion prepared from the barks of Parisah/Nandi (Ficus arnottiana), Udumbara (Ficus racemosa) and Saptaparn (Alstonia scholais), Nimba (Azadirachta indica), Vacha (Acoros calamus), Musta (Cyperus rotundos) and Amoora rohithuka/Aphanamixis polystachya.

Dressing

Dress with the paste prepared from oil cake of Sweta sarshapa (Barssica juncea) over the affected portion of the root and irrigate with the medicated water from ashes of Sesamum indicum

Pacifying procedures

Administer pungent (katu) and thiktha (bitter)/astringent (kashaya rasam) taste dominated drugs and Ruksha guna (drying properites) luke warm water to pacify Kaphaja diseases

Treatment of plant pest and diseases

Sl.no

Disease condition

Treatment application

Protocol

1

Worm/insect

External application

Paste is prepared from cow’s urine, Vidanga (Emblica ribes), Sarshapa (Brasica juncae), Tila (Sesamum indicum) along with Gritham is smeared over the affected part and then fumigated with suitable drugs followed by irrigation with the mixture of milk and water

Apart from being an insecticide/Germicide it acts as growth promoter and enhance profuse flowering and fruiting

A mixture prepare from the bark of Karanjam (Pongamia pinnata), Aragwatham (Cassia fistula), Arishtam (Azadirachta indica), Saptaparna (Alstonia scholaris) is furthur mixed with Musta (Cyberus rotundus) and Vidanga (Emblica ribes), cow’s urine and applied externally over the affected part as insecticide/Germicide

2

Burn

Irrigation

Irrigate with Kunapajalam along with milk at the basin of the tree

External application

Medicated paste prepared from Sarasija kandham (Nymphaea alba) is smeared over the trunk of the tree to revive the growth.

3

Cyclone

Plastering

Medicated paste prepared from the bark of Plaksham (Ficus microcarpa), Arka (Calotropis gigantea), Udumbaram (Ficus racemosa) along with gritham (clarified butter), Madhura dravya (sweet taste dominated substances), Madhu chishta (bee wax) and milk. This paste is applied over the affected (fracture/dislocation) part of the tree and tied with a bandage made of coir thread. This is followed by application of paste and clayey soil over the bandage. A mixture prepared from milk and water is poured at the basin of the tree. This will help reunion the fractured part of the tree and promote growth, profuse flowering and fruiting.

4

Trauma

Irrigation

Mixture prepared from the pwder of Khanam (Cyperus rotundus), Useeram (Chrysopogon zizanioides), Madhukam (Madhuka neriifolia), Mugdam (Phaseolus radiatus ), Masha (Vigna mungo), Yava (Hordeum vulgare), Tila (Sesamum indicum) along with milk and water is used for irrigation to heal the bruise and wound. This also helps to restore health of the tree.

Hail storm wind displaced tree

Irrigation

Prepare a paste/liquid mixture using the bark of Plaksha (Ficus microcarpa), Arka (Calotrophis gigantea), Masha (Vigna mungo), Yava (Hordeum valgare) and Tila (Sesamum indicum) along with milk and water. This liquid if constantly used to irrigate the trees strunk by lighting, acts as a growth promoter.

Conditioning the reproductive system

Irrigation

Irrigate trees/plant species, which has flowered/fruited once and stopped flowering/fruiting furthur, with the mixture prepared from Kunapajala and milk.

5

Cold wind Dried trees

Irrigation

Irrigated with the medicated decoction prepared from Gritham (clarified butter), Vidanga (Embelica ribes), along with milk for seven days for the healthy growth of dried branches due to excess or scanty irrigation.

Fumigation

Pour a medicated liquid manure prepared from Sarkara (jaggery) powder of Tila (Sesamum indicum) and Gosheeram (cow’s milk) then fumigate with ingredients already prescribed.

Trees affected with lighting roughness

Irrigation

Irrigate with Liquid bio manure prepared from lodhara (Symplocos cochinensis) and fat of animals

Protuberance due to vitiation of vata

Pour Kunapajala over the affected portion

Others

Sl. No

Disease condition

Treatment protocol

Application

1

Indigestion due to excess intake of water with following symptoms; abnormal smell, deformity of leaves and sprouts, infestation with ants and peeling of the bark

Cleaning the smelling area

A cut is made with an axe near the root of the tree and cell sap is allowed to ooze out. Drain out the vitiated lymph and clean the wound well

1. Smear a paste prepared from Madhu (honey), Gritham (clarified butter), Vidanga (Emblica ribes) and apply over the wound. It is further covered with mud, and milk and water poured over it.

The affected portion is smeared with a paste prepared from the powder of Janthugnam (Embelia ribes), Tila (Sesamum indicum) along with Kshoudram (honey) and Ajyam (clarified butter). Then it is covered with mud and milk and water poured

2

To prevent/cure exudation

External application

Pour a mixture prepared from Priyangu (Calicarpa macrophylla), Haritaki (Terminalia chebula) Amalaki (Phyllathus emblica), Vibhitaki (Terminalia bellirica), Karkari (Solanum melongena), Vetasa (Homonoia riparia), Arjuna (Terminalia cuneata) boiled with milk and cooled

3

To enhance the flowering and fruiting of old age plant

Irrigation

Irrigate with nutrient liquid manure (Kunapajala) and milk.

4

Diseases occurring sue to tissue watering

Irrigation

Irrigate with the liquid prepared from Sarkara (jaggery), Tila (Sesamum indicum), Goksheera (cow milk/water) and fumigate with the drugs already mentioned earlier

5

Infection/parasite

Irrigation

Remove the parasite affecting the root and water for seven days then irrigate with a mixture of milk, Kunapajala, Vacha (Acorus calamus), Kushta (Saussurea lappa) and Athicisha (Aconitum heterophyllum).Fumigate with Siddhartha (Sinapis alba), Hingu (Ferula assafoedita), Vidanga (Embelia ribes), Vacha (Acorus calamus) Ardraka (Zingiber officinale) cow meat, water, Sairibi horn (horn of buffalo) and flesh of Kapota (Columa livia)

6

Disinfectant recipe Krimiharam (anthelmintic)

Paste

A paste prepared from Karnja (Pongamia pinnata), Aragwatha (Cassia fistula), Leshuna (Allium sativum), Saptaparna (Alstonia scholaris), Musta (Cyperus rotundus) and Vidanga (Embelia ribes) along with cow’s urine is applied on the infected part.

7

Snake repellent

Fumigation

Fumigate with seed of Karpasam (Gossypium barbadense) along with shed skin of snake.

8

Regeneration (treatment for diseases that occur in trees due to various etiological factors like climate change, association of trees of nearby trees/plant species, attack of elephants etc.)

Paste and irrigation

Remove the affected portion with knife, smear with a paste prepared from Vidanga(Embelia ribes) mixed with Gritham (clarified butter) and irrigate with mixture of milk and water.

9

To check falling of unripe fruits

Irrigation

Irrigate medicated milk decoction prepared from Kulatham (Dolichos biflorus), Masha (Vigno mungo), Mugda (Vigna radiata), Tila (Sesamum indicum) and Yava (Hordeum vulgare)

Usage of plant parts for various diseases

Sl. No

Disease condition

Treatment protocol

Application

1

Vata rogas (the disease caused by aggravation and depletion of Vata)

Paste

Smear a paste prepared from Masha (Vigna mungo), meda (fat) and gritham (clarified butter) over the affected part.

Irrigation

Irrigate basin of the tree with Kunapajala

Fumigation

Fumigate with a mixture prepared from Arista (Azadirachta indica), Gosringa (cow’s horn), Turangakesa (horse hair), Sana (Lens Culinaris), Gritham (clarified butter), Sisumara Taila (oil/fat of Esturine crocodile (Crocodyus porosus) and Kola meda (hog fat) (Sus scrofa) Alternatively fumigate with Kola meda (hog fat) and pour a decoction prepared from Aristha (Azadirachta indica), Gosringa (cow’s horn), Turangakesa (horse hair), Sana (Lens culinaris), Gritham (clarified butter) and sisumara taila (oil/fat of Esturine crocodile (Crocodyus porosus)

2

Kapha rogas (diseases due to aggravation and depletion of Kapha)

Medicated decoction

Pour medicated decoction prepared from Desamoola root and bark of Vilwa (Aegle marmelos), Kashmari (Gmelina arborea), Syonaka (Oroxylum indicum), Patala (Stereospermum chelonoides), Agnimantha (Clerodendrum phlomidis), Brihati (Solanum indicum), Brihati (Solanum melongena), Salaparni (Desmodium gangeticum), Prisnaparni (Uraria picta) and Gpkshura (Tribulus terrtris)

Paste

A paste prepared from Sita sarsapa (Brassica juncae) is applied over the roots.

Spray

Spray the medicated water prepared from Tilabhuti jala (ash of sesame seeds mixed in water) over the plant and roots.

3

Pitta roga (diseases due to aggravation and depletion of Pitta)

Nature of drug administration

Apply drugs possessing the properties of seetha veerya (cold dominated potency)and Madhura rasa (sweet taste)to pacify pitta related disorders.

Irrigation

Irrigate with the medicated decoction prepared from Ksheera (milk), Madhu (honey), Yastimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra) and Madhuka (Madhuca longifolia) over the plant and root.

Irrigation

A medicated decoction prepared from Gritha (clarified butter) Thriphala Harithaki (Terminalia chebula) Amalaki (Phylanthus emblica), Vibhataki (Terminalia bellirica) along with Madhu (honey).

4

Worms/insects

Irrigation/sprinkling

Irrigate with cold water regularly for seven days over the roots, stem and branches. Irrigate with a mixture prepared from Payah (milk), Kunapajala (liquid manure), Bhillataru (Symplocos racemosa), Vasa (fat), Govid(cow dung) along with water. Irrigate with Ksharambu (Alkaline water) mixed with Gritha (clarified butter). Sprinkle with Khalika jala (sesame seeds cake mixed with water) over the affected part of the climbers.

Poultice

Paste prepared from siddhartha (Brassica juncae), Vacha (Acrous calmus), Kushta (Saussurea lappa) and Ativisa (Aconitum heteophyllum) is applied as poultice over the roots and branches.

Pastes prepared from Vidanga fruit is applied externally. A paste prepared from Goamsa (cow flesh), Sarsapa and Tila (Sesamum indicum) is applied as a thick layer externally.

Fumigation

Fumigate with a mixture prepared from Siddhartha (Brassica juncae), Ramatah (Ferula assafoetida), Vacha (Acrous calmus), Gomamsambu (water extraction of cow’s flesh), Saribhi visana (horn of buffalo), Kapota mamsa (pigeons flesh), Bhalata (Semicarpus anacardium), Vidanga (Embelia ribes) and Ushana (Pipernigrum)

Spray

Further, powder prepared from the Bhasma (ash) mixed with Ishtika churna (powder of brivcks) is sprayed over the affected part.

5

Wound healing

Paste

A paste prepared from Vidanga (Embelia ribes), Tila (Sesamum indicum), Gomutra (cow’s urine), Gritham (clarified butter) and Siddhartha (Brassica juncae) is applied externally

Spray

Spray milk on the affected part

Paste

Smear a paste prepared from Vata(Ficus bhengalensis), Udumbaram (Ficus racemosa), Gomaya (cow’s urine), Ksoudra (honey) and Gritham (clarified butter) over the affected parts.

Smear a paste prepared from the bark of Dhava (Anogeissus latifolia) Gambhari (Gmelina arborea), Syama (Ipomoea petaloidea), Vetas(Salix tetrasperma) and Arjuna (Terminalia cuneata)

6

Atmospheric effect on trees

Irrigation

Irrigate with kunapajala and milk when the trees are affected with Hima (snowfall), Karakavirshti (hail storm) and Canda tapa (heat of sunlight). Adequate protection acchadanam) should be ensured by providing shade)

7

Management of fracture and dislocation (bhagna-khandita)

Pre-treatment

Broken trees are properly fixed by tightly tying with the rope of paddy, with the help of a splint

Post-treatment

Then a paste prepared from Gritha (clarified butter), Madhu (honey), Utumbara bark (Ficus racemosa), Madira (medicated alcoholic drink) and Plaksha (Ficus microcarpa) is applied over the fractured part and bandaged properly. Then irrigate with Ksheera (buffalo milk), Vrishty jala (rain water) for regeneration and re growth.

8

Management of cracking branches (Srata sakha)

Pre-treatment

Smear a paste prepared from Madhu (honey) and Gritha (ghee) over the affected part.

Post-treatment

Irrigate with a mixture of milk and water. This will help to regenerate growth.

9

Burned tree (Vahnidagdha vriksha)

Pre-treatment

The fire burned part should be separated and cut off followed by irrigated with milk and water at the site to enable regeneration of the tree.

Post-treatment

Smear a paste prepared from Padmini (Nelumbo nucifera) and Parika (soft mud) over the affected part and irrigate with Kunapajala. This will help healthy re growth.

10

Trees struck by lightning

Paste

Smear a paste prepared from Vidhari (Ipomoea digitata), Sarkara (Jaggeri), Naggihva (Bauhinia scandens) and Tila (Sesamum indicum). Then irrigate with the mixture of milk and water.

11

Drying of trees due to deficient soil effect (infertile soil or lesser content nutrients)

Replacement of soil and irrigation

Old soil should be replaced with good soil of good quality having sufficient nutrients followed by irrigation with the mixture of milk and water

12

Water scarcity (jala abhava)

Irrigation

Irrigate with a mixture of water and milk. Then fumigate with Kulira-(Njandu)- (Liocarcinus vernalis/Potamon ibericum).

13

Treat side effects due to improper treatment

Paste

Paste prepared from vidanga seed (Embelia ribus) mixed with mud is applied externally.

Irrigation

Irrigate with a mixture of milk and water

14

Aneamia (panduroga) The tree suffering from Pandu (aneamic) condition is characterized by pale or white/yellow color in outer appearance)

Irrigation

Irrigate with a mixture of water, Yava (Hordeum vulgare), Godhuma (Triticum aestivum), Ksodra (honey) and Paya (milk)

15

Vadhyata (infertility)

Irrigation/paste

Irrigate using kunapajala mixed with milk. Regular use of this combination makes plants fertile and helps profuse flowering and fruiting. Irrigate with water mixed with the paste prepared from Tila (Sesamum indicum), Yava (Hordeum vulagare), Kulatham (Dolichos biflorus), Masha (Vigna mungo) and Mudga (Vigna radiata). This will help the plant to be fertile and for profuse flowering and fruiting. (Purayantyasam- nitya puspaphalai). Irrigate with the mixture prepared using the following ingredients: Tila (Sesamum indicum), Aja (Carpa hircus) dung) and Avi (Ovis aries) dung. The quantity of each ingredient is one Adaka sakthu (powder of puffed rice- quantity one prastha), jala( water-quantity five Drona), adding with Cow’s flesh (Gomamsa) in quantity of one Tula. This will help profuse flowering and fruiting.

(Surapala)