Commercial crops

Commercial crops

Commercial crops (4)

COTTON (Gossypium sp.)

Cotton is grown from sea level to moderate elevations not exceeding 1000 m where the climate is tropical with rainfall 500 to 750 mm. Excessive rain at any stage is harmful to the crop. It can be grown in a wide variety of soils. A deep homogeneous fertile soil is desirable.



Winter crop : August _ September

Summer crop : February _ March

Preparation of land and sowing

Plough the land three to four times and form ridges and furrows. Dibble the seeds on the sides of the furrows. Use basalin at the rate of 2.5 l ha-1 before irrigating the field to control the weeds.

Note: Treat the seeds with carbendazim 50 WP (2 g kg-1) or Trichoderma viride talc preparation (4 g kg-1) before sowing.



Apply FYM or compost @ 12.5 t ha-1 for rainfed crop and 25 t ha-1 for irrigated crop. Apply N:P2O5:K2O each @ 35 kg ha-1 as basal dressing. Top dress with 35 kg N per ha-1 about 45 days after sowing.



Thin the crop when the plants are 15 to 20 cm high, retaining two seedlings per hill. Retain only one seedling per hill in the case of hybrids. Timely weeding and hoeing will ensure good crop growth.



In the case of irrigated crop, irrigate the plants once in two weeks. Copious irrigation during flowering will ensure good pod setting and good fibre quality.

Plant Protection
Against sucking pests like jassids, aphids and thrips, spray imidacloprid (100 ml ha-1) on 20th day and 40th day.


To control whitefly, use neem oil (3.0 l/ha-1) or phosalone (1000ml ha-1).

For bollworm, spray quinalphos or chlorpyriphos.


For bacterial blight disease, use strepto-cycline (50 g ha-1 + copper oxychloride 1.5 kg ha-1). For grey mildew, carbendazim @ 250 g ha-1 may be used. For Alternaria leaf spot, use copper oxychloride @ 1.5 kg ha-1.



The bolls start bursting 100-120 days after sowing and will be ready for harvest at this stage.

CASHEW (Anacardium occidentale)


Cashew is adapted to warm humid tropical conditions. It can be grown in almost all types of soils from sandy to laterite and up to an elevation of 600-700 m including wastelands of low fertility. It grows and yield best in well-drained red sandy loams and light coastal sands. Heavy clay soils, poor drainage conditions, very low temperature and frost are unsuitable for the crop.


Planting materials
Cashew can be propagated by seedlings, air layers and softwood grafts. Since it is a cross-pollinated crop, vegetative propagation is recommended to obtain true to type progeny. Field establishment of air layers have been found to be poor. Hence softwood grafts, which give a high rate of establishment and early flowering, are recommended for planting.


1. Propagation by seedlings

Selection of mother trees


Select mother trees having the following characteristics: (1) Good health, vigorous growth and intensive branching habit with panicles having high percentage of hermaphrodite flowers. (2) Trees of 15-25 years of age. (3) Bearing nuts of medium size and weight (5-8 g/nut) with an average yield of 15 kg nuts per annum. (4) Bearing 7-8 nuts per panicle.


Selection of nuts

Select mother trees in February and collect seed nuts in March-April. Select good, mature, medium sized nuts, which sink in water as seeds after drying in sun for two to three days.


Raising seedlings

Raise seedlings in polythene bags during May. Use polythene bags of size 20 cm x 15 cm and fill the bags with garden soil, leaving a gap of 1 to 1.5 cm above. Soak seed nuts in water for 18 to 24 hours to hasten germination. Sow the pre-soaked seed nuts in polythene bags filled with garden soil at a depth of 2-3 cm with the stalk end up. Seeds germinate in seven to ten days.

2. Propagation by air layering
Prepare air layers during February-March, so that they will be ready for planting in June-July. Select 9-12 months old pencil-thick terminal shoots. Remove carefully a strip or ring of bark, 0.6 to 1.2 cm thick by using a sharp knife without injuring the underlying wood. Wind a string around the cut area and cover it with moist moss or wood shavings or sand and saw dust mixture or ordinary potting mixture and wrap round with 150-200 gauge polythene film of size 23 cm x 15 cm. Secure loose ends of film with jute fibre. When roots emerge from the ringed portion in 40-60 days, give a `V' cut at lower end of treated shoot. After about 15 days, deepen the cut slightly. Cut and separate rooted shoot about 7 days later. Pot the layers immediately after separation from the tree into containers of size 15 x 15 cm made from coconut husk and keep them in shade. Avoid excessive watering. Plant the layers along with the container in the prepared pits with the onset of southwest monsoon. Provide shade and mulch with dry leaves to reduce sun-scorch in tender plants. It is advisable to defoliate the layers two weeks before separation from the mother plant.


3. Propagation by grafting / budding

Different methods of grafting viz., epicotyl grafting, softwood grafting, veneer grafting, side grafting, patch budding etc. have been tried in cashew with varying degrees of success. Among them, softwood grafting was found to be the best for commercial multiplication of cashew.


Softwood grafting

Selection of seed nuts


(1) Seed nuts may be collected during the peak period of harvest (February-March) and sun-dried for 2-3 days. (2) Quality seed nuts may be selected by immersing in water or 10 per cent saline solution. Seeds, which sink in water, may be selected. (3) Medium sized nuts (7-9 g) may be selected to get vigorously growing seedlings.


Raising rootstocks

1. Fresh seed nuts are to be used for raising rootstock. Seed nuts stored for more than one year may be avoided.

2. The seed nuts should be soaked in water overnight before sowing.

3. Use polythene bags (size 25 cm x 15 cm, 300 gauge thickness) for filling potting mixture.
4. Punch about 16-20 holes on the polythene bags to ensure good drainage.

5. Prepare the potting mixture (1:1:1 ratio of red soil, river sand and compost) mixed with rock phosphate @ 5 g per 2 kg potting mixture.
6. Fill the polythene bags up to the brim of the bag.
7. Sow the pre-soaked nuts in the centre of the bag with stalk end up, at a depth of 2.0-2.5 cm.

8. Water the bags immediately after sowing and daily thereafter. Avoid excess irrigation.
9. Nuts usually germinate within 15-20 days after sowing during monsoon months and within 8-10 days during dry months.
10. Nuts should be sown at weekly intervals to get continuous supply of rootstocks.

11. During summer, provide partial shade to the seedlings till they change their bronze colour to green and then keep them in the open.

12. The seedlings will be ready for grafting in 50-60 days after germination.

13. Prevent damage to germinating nuts from squirrels, birds etc.

14. During the rainy season, damping off of young seedlings is common. To control this disease, spraying / drenching Bordeaux mixture (1per cent) is effective.


Selection of rootstock

Select 50-60 days old healthy seedlings having single main stem grown in the centre of the polythene bag, as rootstock.

Selection of scions

(1) Select a high yielding variety of cashew as mother plant to collect adequate number of scions. (2) Select 3-5 month old non-flowering lateral shoots of current season's growth. (3) The selected scions should be 10-12 cm long, straight, uniformly round and pencil thick with brown colour having dormant plumpy terminal bud. The top 4-5 leaves should be dark green in colour indicating proper maturity of the scion.


(1) Pre-cure the selected scions by clipping off three fourth portion of leaf blades.
(2) Scions will be ready for grafting in 7-10 days after leaf removal.


Collection of scions
(1) The pre-cured scions are to be cut early in the morning to avoid desiccation. (2) The scions should be collected before the terminal buds sprout. (3) Wrap scions in moist cloth and put in polythene covers as soon as they are cut from the mother tree and bring them to the nursery for grafting. If necessary, they can be stored for 3-4 days and used for grafting.


Preparation of rootstock

(1) Retain two pairs of bottom leaves and remove others from the selected seedlings using a sharp knife. (2) Give a transverse cut on the main stem, 15 cm above ground level. (3) A cleft of 4-5 cm deep is made in the middle of the decapitated stem of the seedling by giving a longitudinal cut.

Preparation of scion
(1) Select a matching scion stick (same thickness as that of the rootstock). (2) The cut end of the scion is shaped to a wedge of 4-5 cm long by chopping the bark and wood from two opposite sides.



1. The wedge of the scion is inserted into the cleft of the rootstock, taking care to ensure that the cambium layers of stock and scion are in perfect contact with each other.

2. The graft joint is secured firmly by a polythene tape (1.5 cm wide and 30 cm long).

3. The scion of the graft is to be covered with a wet polythene cap (15 cm x 12.5 cm. 100 gauge thickness) and tied at the bottom to maintain humidity inside and to protect the apical bud from drying. The polythene cap should not touch the terminal bud. A narrow polythene cover of size 20 cm x 3 cm (sip-up-cover) can also be used instead of above said polythene cap.
4. The grafted plants are to be kept under shade for 10-15 days to enable sprouting of the terminal buds.

5. The polythene caps are to be removed and the grafts shifted to open place. The successful grafts show signs of growth within 3-4 weeks after grafting.

6. The grafts will be ready for planting 5-6 months after grafting.
7. The success in softwood grafting is more during the period from March to September under Kerala conditions.

Care in the nursery

1. The grafts are to be watered regularly using a rose can or micro-sprinkler.

2. Remove new sprouts emerging from rootstock at frequent intervals.

3. Panicles, if produced by the grafts, may be removed as and when observed.

4. Grafts should be placed on polythene sheets spread on the ground to prevent rooting.

5. Shift the grafts frequently from one place to another to prevent them from striking roots into the ground.

6. Spray recommended insecticides for controlling the infestation of sucking insects as and when required.


Graft production under polyhouse

Softwood grafts can be prepared almost throughout the year with a mean graft success of about 60-70 per cent. Higher success is achieved during the monsoon season. For this, low cost polyhouses (prepared from casuarina / bamboo poles / areca reapers / GI pipes / PVC pipes and covered with high density polythene sheet of convenient dimensions) preferably 20 m long and 6 m wide may be utilized for graft production. The height of the polyhouse should be 2.5 m in the middle and 1.0 m on both sides. The plants may be watered using hose. Misting units can also be fitted at appropriate points and switched on for about 5-10 minutes at an interval of two hours from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. during summer season. This reduces the temperature build up inside the polyhouse. Raising of rootstock seedlings, grafting of rootstocks and maintenance of grafts can be done inside the polyhouses. These polyhouses give protection to the seedlings and grafts during heavy rains and reduce the mortality. Again during summer months the seedlings / grafts can be maintained in these polyhouses by covering with HDPE shade nets (35-50 per cent shade).


Planting and management of grafts

The softwood grafts will be ready for planting in 5-6 months after grafting. The pits are filled with topsoil and 5-10 kg of compost or dried cowdung / pit and the grafts are planted after carefully removing the polythene bags. Care should be taken while planting to see that the graft union is 2.5 cm above the ground level. The polythene tape is to be carefully cut and removed subsequently. Staking should be done immediately after planting to avoid lodging.


Planting and management of plantation

Plant softwood grafts in pits of size 50 cm x 50 cm x 50 cm during June-July.


Planting may be done at a spacing of 7.5 m for poor and 10 m for rich and deep soils and sandy coastal area. On very sloppy lands, the rows may be spaced 10-15 m apart with a spacing of 6-8 m between trees in a row.

Depending upon the weed growth, weeding operation may be done during August-September. Mulch the plant base with dry leaves to reduce sun-scorch to tender plants.


Herbicides can be used for controlling weeds. Apply glyphosate 0.8 kg ai/ha-1, once in June-July.


Initial training / shape pruning

The sprouts coming from the rootstock portion of the graft, that is from the portion below the graft joint, should be removed frequently during the first year of planting. Initial training and pruning of young cashew plants during the first 3-4 years is essential for providing proper shape. Thereafter, little or no pruning is necessary. The plants should be allowed to grow by maintaining a single stem up to 0.75-1.00 m from ground level. This can be achieved by removing the side shoots or side branches gradually as the plants start growing from the second year of planting. Weak and criss-cross branches can also be removed. Branches growing unwidely may also be cut off. Proper staking of the plants is required to avoid lodging due to wind during the initial years of planting. Initial training and pruning of cashew plants facilitate easy cultural operations such as terrace making, weeding, fertilizer application, nut collection and plant protection. The flower panicles emerging from the grafts during the first and second year of planting should also be removed (de-blossoming) in order to allow the plant to put up good vegetative growth. The plants are allowed to flower and fruit only from the third year onwards.


General pruning

In older cashew plantations, removal of dried or dead wood, criss-cross branches, water shoots etc. should be attended to at least once in 2-3 years. This allows proper growth of the canopy and receipt of adequate

sunlight on all the branches. Pruning of cashew plants should be done during May / June.



A fertilizer dose of 750 g N, 325 g P2O5 and 750 g K2O per plant is recommended for cashew. Apply 1/5th dose after the completion of first year, 2/5th dose during second year and thus reaching full dose from 5th year onwards. Broadcast the fertilizer within an area of 0.5 to 3.0 m (15 cm deep) around the tree and incorporate by light raking.



Pineapple is the most profitable intercrop in cashew plantation in the early stages of growth. It can be planted between two rows of cashew in trenches opened across the slope. Paired row of pineapple suckers can be planted in each trench at 60 cm between rows and 40 cm between two suckers within the row. These trenches can be opened at 1 m between two rows of cashew. Ginger, lemongrass and tapioca are also suitable as intercrops.


High density planting

High density planting is a technique

recommended for enhancing the productivity of cashew plantations. This technique involves planting more number of grafts per unit area and thinning at later stages. Instead of the normal planting density of 64 to 177 plants per hectare (spacing ranging from 7.5 to 10 m in the square system of planting) or 74 to 204 plants (spacing ranging from 7.5 to 10 m in the triangular system of planting), 312 to 625 grafts will be planted per hectare, initially. During later years, as the canopy develops, plant population is to be regulated by selective felling to minimize competition.


While adopting a high density planting technique, grafts may be planted initially at a spacing of 4 m x 4 m or 8 m x 4 m so that there will be 625 or 312 plants respectively. This population can be retained for a period of seven to nine or ten years depending upon the canopy expansion rate. If the soil is very rich the canopy development rate will be faster. High density planting would be more useful in poor soils where the rate of canopy expansion is slow. Considering the fertility status of the soil, the level of management in terms of fertilization, irrigation etc. the initial plant population is to be decided carefully for every agro-climatic condition. Later, after monitoring the canopy pressure between adjacent plants, the alternate plants are to be removed. Finally, when the plants attain full growth, the spacing between the plants will be 8 m x 8 m.


If uniform management practices are adopted, during early years of yield, the per tree nut yield will be more or less the same with all the trees, in both the conventional system of planting and in high density planting. But the per hectare yield will be more from high-density plantations (due to higher plant population) compared to the normal density plantations. During later years, when the plant population is equalized to that of normal density plantation, the productivity of both the plantations would be more or less the same. The bonus yield obtained during the early years of yield would be substantial in high-density plantations.


In addition to obtaining higher yields, substantial quantities of firewood can be obtained during thinning, which may fetch additional revenue to the farmer. The weed growth in the interspace can be effectively checked to a greater extent.

Top working

Top working is a technique evolved to rejuvenate unproductive and senile cashew trees. Top working can successfully rejuvenate poor yielders in the age group of 5-20 years. The unproductive trees are to be beheaded at a height of 0.75 to 1.00 m from ground level. The stem should be cut with a saw to avoid stump splitting. The best season for beheading trees is May-September. Soon after beheading, the stumps and cut portions should be given a swabbing with copper oxychloride and carbaryl 50 WP (50 g each per litre of water). Sprouts emerge 30-45 days after beheading. Sprouting will be profuse in young trees. New, 20-25 days old shoots should be grafted with scions of high yielding varieties using softwood grafting technique. To ensure at least six or seven successful grafts, 10-15 grafting are to be done on the new shoots of every tree. The best season for grafting is July _ November.Thinning of the extra shoots arising from the stumps should be done to obtain better growth of the grafts. Removal of sprouts below the graft joint and removal of polythene strip from the graft joint should be done. Top working is simple and can be done by farmers after getting proper training.


The top worked trees start yielding right from the second year after top working. Thus precocity can be considered as one of the best advantages of this technique. The major disadvantage associated with top working is the huge casualty of trees due to stem borer attack. Intensive care and management to ward off stem borer is essential. As such, adoption of top working on a larger scale would be difficult.

Pest and diseases

Tea mosquito bug


This is the most serious pest affecting cashew. The pest usually appears with the emergence of new flushes and panicle. Drying of inflorescence and dieback of shoots are the symptoms. For control of tea mosquito bug, spray 0.1 per cent carbaryl or 0.05 per cent quinalphos or 0.003 per cent Lambda cyhalothrin. A rational rotation of insecticides would be desirable to counteract the tendency of the pest to develop field resistance. Spraying may be done once, twice or thrice depending upon necessity.

First spraying is to be given synchronizing with the emergence of new vegetative flushes in October-November. The second spraying may be given synchronizing with the commencement of panicle emergence in December-January. The third spraying may be given at completion of flowering / initiation of fruit set in January _ February.


Note: Avoid spraying carbaryl and 0.003 per cent Lambda cyhalothrin at the time of flowering, as they are highly toxic to honey bees.

Cashew stem and root borer (adhoc recommendation)

This is a serious pest, which is capable of destroying the cashew tree. Main symptoms of attack are yellowing of leaves, drying of twigs, presence of holes at the base of stem with exuding sap and frass.


Check regulary for symptoms of CSRB attack particularly during january _ May period. In the case of already infested trees, mechanically remove various stages of pest (grubs and pupae) by carefully chiseling the bark. Care should be taken to avoid removal of more than 50 per cent of total bark circumference. Swab the chiseled area by using Chlorpyriphos 20 EC (0.2 per cent @ 10 ml/1) and drench the pesticide solution onto the soil near the root zone to minimize reinfestation by the pest, (DCR, Puttur recommendation).

Prophylactic treatment by swabbing the trunk region (up to 1 m height from the ground level) and exposed roots, with a suspension of mud slurry +carbaryl 0.2 per cent or coal tar and kerosene (1:2) or 5 per cent neem oil twice a year during March _ April and November _ December.


To reduce the spread of infestation, it is essential to remove the dead trees and trees in advanced stage of infestation at least once in 6 months. Dead trees and trees beyond recovery - trees having yellow canopy and /or more than 50 per cent bark circumference damage needs to be uprooted. Pest stages occurring in the roots should be destroyed so as to reduce pest inoculum in the future.

Dieback or pink disease

This disease is prevalent in cashew plantations during rainy season. Main symptom of attack is the appearance of white patches on branches followed by drying of twigs from the tip.

Chisel out the affected parts and apply bordeaux paste. Give prophylactic sprays of 1 per cent bordeaux mixture during May-June and October.


1) For grown up trees, 5 litres of spray fluid would be required at high volume discharge rate and 2.5 litres at the low volume discharge rate. For spraying, rocker sprayer with hi-tree lance is preferable.

2) For low volume application, the concentration of the insecticides is to be maintained at 0.1 per cent for quinalphos and 0.2 per cent for carbaryl. It is difficult to cover the entire canopy with low volume equipment. In such cases, the uncovered upper canopy areas may be covered with rocker sprayer fitted with hi-tree lance system.

3) Dusting powder formulations are not recommended against tea mosquito bug.

4) Spray carbaryl 0.1 per cent or 0.003 per cent Lambda cyhalothrin as a prophylaxis against pest infestation in nursery plants.
5) Spray Bordeaux mixture 1per cent to seedlings as a prophylactic measure against fungal diseases.



Post Harvest Utilization of Cashew Apple
Cashew apple is a valuable source of sugars, minerals and vitamins especially vitamin C and can be used for preparation of various products.


Preliminary Processing

Select crisp, firm, tight and full colour developed best quality apples. It should have medium to large size, more than 70 per cent juice, more than 11 per cent sugar and 0.39- 0.42 per cent acidity. Since highly susceptible to physical injury and microbial spoilage, collect apples every day, after separating the nuts, when it falls to the ground. The selected fruits are washed with water.

Stainless steel or glass containers should be used for processing, after sterilization. Copper, iron, aluminum and brass containers should not be used as it will blacken the products. Plastic buckets or barrels can be used for dipping and cleaning fruits.


Juice can be extracted from ripe cashew apples, after washing, using screw press, basket press, hydraulic press or by hand pressing with the help of citrus juice extractor. About 50-60 per cent raw juice with 9-10 per cent soluble solids can be obtained. The astringent taste of cashew apple is due to the presence of tannins in it. The tannin present in the raw juice can be removed through clarification by adopting one of the following methods:-


1. Take 5g powdered sago in minimum quantity of water, heat and make into paste by stirring and cool it. Add sago paste into one litre juice and mix well by stirring. Decant the clear juice after 12 hours.

2. Mix gelatin @ 0.5 g kg-1 of raw juice and allow to settle. Decant the clear juice and discard the sediment (gelatin may be dissolved in water by heating).

3. Mix poly vinyl pyrollidone @ 1.4 g kg-1 of raw juice. Allow to settle and decant the clear juice.
4. Mix about 125 ml of fresh rice gruel (kanjivellam) and allow to settle. Decant the clear upper layer and repeat the process using 125 ml of rice gruel.


Tannin can be removed from mature or ripe apples (de-tanning) by adopting the following procedures:-

1. Detanning of ripe whole apples: - Clean the apples and immerse in 5 per cent salt solution for 3 days with the change of salt solution daily. Take out the fruit on the 4th day and wash thoroughly in water. The fruit is now de-tanned.


2. Detanning of mature but unripe whole green apples for pickle preparation:- Wash the raw green fruit and cut into small pieces. Keep in 8 per cent salt solution for 3 days with the change of salt solution daily. Take out the fruits on the 4th day and wash thoroughly with water. The fruit is now de-tanned.


Off season storage of raw material
Raw material for cashew apple processing can be stored for a period of six months without affecting quality for the off season preparation of products.


1. Juice for beverage production:- Mix 2.5 g potassium meta bisulphate (KMS) and 5 g citric acid during clarification of juice and store the clarified juice in food grade plastic containers.

2. Pulp for jam production:- Cook ripe cashew apple, after removal of tannin, for 20 minutes, make into pulp using pulper and mix with 2.5 g KMS and 5 g citric acid.

3. Cashew apple for pickle production:- Keep one kg of de-tanned green cashew apple pieces with 200 g salt in alternate layers.


Standard products like syrup, squash, ready- to- serve beverages etc can be made using the clarified juice as per FPO specifications.


Preparation of products

The recipe for the preparation of various products from cashew apple is given below:-


1. Cashew apple juice


Cashew apple                 _ 25 kg

Poly Vinyl Pyrollidone      _ 10 g

Sodium benzoate           _ 6 g

Sugar                              _ 500 g

Citric acid                       _ 8 g


Extract the juice by pressing. Clarify the juice by adding PVP and filter it through a muslin cloth. To the clarified juice, add all the items one by one under stirring.


1. Cashew apple juice can be blended with lime juice, orange juice or pineapple juice on 75:25 basis and served. 
2. The recovery of juice from apple can be improved by using basket press, screw press or hydraulic press.

Table 15. FPO specifications for fruit products


Minimum fruit juice % Minimum TSS%

Acidity max. %

Max. preservative (free SO2) ppm


25 40 3.5 350


25 65 3.5 350

Ready to  serve beverages

10 10 --- 70

2. Cashew apple squash


Cashew apple        _ 25 kg

PVP                        _ 10 g

Sodium benzoate   _ 6 g

Sugar                      _ 3 kg

Citric acid               _ 100 g



Wash cashew apple and extract the juice (8 litres). Clarify the juice by adding PVP and filter the juice through muslin cloth. To the clear juice, add the other items and stir well. Bottle the juice and store in cool place.


3. Cashew apple syrup


Clarified cashew

apple juice             _ 1litre
Citric acid              _ 15 g

Sugar                    _ 2 kg
Lemon yellow _ Should not colour exceed 100 ppm (100 mg l-1)



Add sugar @ 2.0 kg litre-1 into the clarified cashew apple juice and then heat moderately. Continue heating with continuous stirring till the sugar completely dissolves. Then add citric acid @ 15 g litre-1 (dissolved in little quantity of syrup) and stir well. Remove the solution from the stove, cool, strain and then add colour (dissolved in little quantity of syrup). Now syrup is ready. To store the syrup for long periods without spoilage, pour into well sterilized glass bottles/new food grade pet bottles and seal air tight. It can be stored for one year. Keep in a cool, dry place. Dilute the syrup five times with cool water to use as fresh drink.


4. Blended cashew apple - Pineapple squash

Clarified cashew

apple juice            _ 125 ml

Pineapple juice     _ 125 ml

Water                    _ 350 ml

Sugar                    _ 400 g

Citric acid             _ 5 g

Lemon yellow _ Should not exceed colour 100 ppm (100 mg l-1)



Take required quantity of sugar and citric acid in water and boil. Towards the end, switch off the flame and add clarified cashew apple juice immediately in hot condition itself by stirring. Cool, add pineapple juice and colour and bottle it after sieving through a clean muslin cloth. Bottle in sterilized glass bottles or new grade pet bottles and seal it air tight. Keep in cool dry place. Dilute the squash three times with cool water to use as fresh drink.


5. Ready - to - Serve beverage

(RTS beverage)


Clarified cashew     _ 150 ml

apple juice

Sugar                       _ 120 g

Water                       _ 730 ml

Citric acid                 _ 5 g

Lemon yellow colour _ Should not exceed 100 ppm (100 mg l-1)



Take required quantity of sugar and citric acid in water and boil. Towards the end, switch off the flame and add clarified cashew apple juice immediately in hot condition itself by stirring. Cool, add colour, strain and bottle it. Pasteurize the bottles by keeping in boiled water for 20 minutes for a storage life of three months. Packing can also be done in food grade plastic covers using liquid packaging machine. But it cannot be pasteurized and hence can be kept only for 2-3 days, unless kept under refrigerated condition.


6. Cashew apple Pineapple blended RTS beverage


Clarified cashew      _ 75 ml

apple juice

Pineapple juice         _ 75 ml

Sugar                       _ 150 g

Water                      _ 700 ml

Citric acid                _ 5 g

Lemon yellow _ Should not exceed colour 100ppm (100 mg l-1)



Take required quantity of sugar and citric acid in water and boil. Towards the end, switch off the flame and add clarified cashew apple juice immediately in hot condition itself by stirring. Cool, add pineapple juice, colour and bottle it after sieving through a clean muslin cloth. Pasteurize the bottles by keeping in boiling water for 20 minutes.


7. Cashew apple Mango mixed fruit jam


De-tanned cashew apple pulp       _ 500 g

Mango pulp                                     _ 500 g

Sugar                                              _ 1.0 kg

Citric acid                                       _ 2.5 g


Fresh ripe mango fruits are washed, peeled, sliced and made into pulp using a mixer or pulper. Add KMS @ 2.5 g and citric acid @ 5 g per kg of pulp for storage. Mix the pulps in the ratio of 1:1. Add one kg sugar per kg of mixed pulp and citric acid (quantity adjusted as per acidity) and cook it with continuous stirring. When it reaches the

appropriate stage for jam, transfer hot into sterilized glass bottles.


8. Cashew apple pickle


De-tanned and sliced raw green fruit     _ 1.0 kg

Gingelly oil                                              _ 100 ml

Chilly powder                                         _ 100 g

Fenugreek powder                                _ 10 g

Asafoetida powder                                _ 10 g

Turmeric powder                                   _ 5 g

Mustard powder                                    _ 5 g

Mustard                                                 _ 2 g

Garlic paste                                          _ 10 g
Ginger paste                                         _ 10 g

Green chilly paste                                _ 10 g

Vinegar                                                 _ 150 ml

Sodium benzoate                                 _ a pinch (0.75 g)

Salt to taste



Boil gingelly oil in steel vessels. Put mustard seed, asafoetida powder, turmeric powder, fenugreek powder, chilly powder and mustard powder to the boiling gingelly oil. When the colour of chilly powder changes, add all the pastes to it. Then add de-tanned and sliced raw green cashew apple. Heat at least for three minutes, after which vinegar and salt (if needed) are added by thorough stirring. Cover the vessel well and allow to cool. Add sodium benzoate dissolved in little quantity of boiled water and stir. Transfer to clean dry glass jars. Use the product after keeping for one week.


9. Cashew apple candy


De-tanned ripe cashew apple         _ 1.0 kg

Sugar                                               _ 1.0 kg

Citric acid                                        _ 1.0 g

Potassium metabisulphite              _ 1.35 g


Preparation of cashew apple

Keep the de-tanned apples in a solution of potassium metabisulphite (half the quantity

ie. 625 mg) for 2-3 days. Thoroughly wash the apples in water. Remove black spots and parts of pedicel. Keep in perforated crates of stainless steel and steam for 10-20 minutes in pressure cooker without over cooking. Make deep holes in the apple using bamboo sticks or steel forks to facilitate entry of sugar syrup in the next stage.

Preparation of sugar syrup

Dissolve 250 g sugar in one litre of water and heat well. Dissolve citric acid (1.0 g) and potassium metabisulphite (625 mg) in this solution.

Preparation of candy

Drop the pre-prepared apple pieces into the boiling sugar syrup so that the apples are completely immersed. Cover the container with lid and keep as such for one day. Take out the fruits on the 2nd day, add 125 g sugar, and drop the apple while heating. Repeat it for 5 days. On 8th day, volume of sugar syrup will be reduced to one-third. Keep the apples as such for 8-10 days. Remove the apples from the syrup solution, drain for 30 minutes and dry it slowly in open area by spreading in a polythene sheet. Keep it in clean, dry, screw capped glass jars in a cool, dry place. It can be stored for one year in air tight containers under refrigerated condition.

10.Cashew apple vinegar


Unclarified cashew apple juice             _ 1.0 litre

Sugar                                                    _ 158 g

Powdered sago                                    _ 5 g

Mother vinegar                                     _ As needed

Starter solution                                    _ 2 g yeast + 20 ml

coconut water



Cashew apple vinegar preparation consists of two stages ie., alcoholic fermentation and acidic fermentation. Add 2.0 g yeast in 20ml coconut water and keep for 12 hours to make starter solution. Add sugar, cooked and cooled sago along with starter solution into one litre of extracted unclarified juice and keep it for twelve days for alcoholic fermentation in narrow mouthed plastic bottles, with cotton plugging. After twelve days filter the fermented supernatant juice (to obtain alcoholic ferment) into a wide mouth glass container or clay pot and add thrice the quantity of mother vinegar for acetic fermentation. Keep it tied with a muslin cloth, allowing air passage, for 15 days. Filter the clear juice portion to a clean stainless steel, pasteurize by keeping in boiling water for 10minutes, cool and bottle it on the 16th day to get vinegar with 5-6 per cen acidity. For continuous vinegar production, the filtrate can be used as mother vinegar.


11. Cashew apple wine


Cashew apple pieces             _ 1kg

Sugar                                      _ 1kg

Lukewarm water                    _ 1 litre

Clove                                     _ 5 g

Cardamom                            _ 5 g

Starter solution                      _ 10 g sugar +

100 g luke warm water          + 5 g yeast



Prepare starter solution by mixing 5 g yeast and 10 g sugar in 100 ml lukewarm water and keep for 30 minutes. Place one kg of cashew apple pieces and one kg of sugar in one litre of lukewarm water along with 5 g each of clove, cardamom and cinnamon in a porcelain vessel, mix together and keep air tight for 21 days. Shake daily the ingredients without opening the vessel. Strain the solution through muslin cloth after 21 days, again keep for 21 days and strain to get the cashew apple wine.


Other products

Methods have been standardized for the preparation of canned cashew apple, cashew apple chutney and cashew apple liquor at Kerala Agricultural University.