1.Neem Seed Kernel Extract (NSKE 3%)

    Materials required

    Neem seed kernel – 30 g

    Water – 1 liter

  • Rats are important non-insect pests and can be grouped into two different groups as domestic rats and field rats.

    Domestic rats

    These are found near human dwellings

    1. House rats(Rattus rattus): There are two subspecies; one with white belly and the other with grey belly. Tail length is more than the length of head and body. They are found in houses and eats anything that man eats. They also cause qualitative damage by deposition of faecal matter, urine and hairs. It damages gunny bags, plastic containers, clothes, electric wires etc. House rats damage tender coconuts and cocoa pods in the fields. They also act as carriers of several human and animal diseases.
    2. House mouse (Mus musculus): Fur is short without spines. Tail is almost naked and larger than head and body. The mouse is very active and is found in houses and gardens. It can climb up walls. It damages clothes, plastic containers and food materials.
    3. Large bandicoot rat (Bandicota indica): This is the largest domestic rat. Fur is coarse. Tail length is almost equal to the body length. Body weight ranges from 750 to 1000 g. It damages all tuber crops. It also damages concrete buildings by making burrows under the basement.

    Field rats

    1. Large bandicoot rat ( Indica): Large bandicoot rats are also seen in the field. So, this can be considered both as domestic and field rat.
    2. Lesser bandicoot rat ( bengalensis): It is a short-tailed mole rat. Tail length is only 70 per cent of the body length. Fur is short and coarse. It is seen making burrows in the paddy field bunds and also in areas where crops like tubers, vegetables, coconut and young rubber are cultivated.
    3. Field mouse (Mus booduga): Fur is short and coarse and is mostly found in gardens and fields. Tail is slender and nearly naked. Tail length is shorter than body and head. The burrows of this species are found in the paddy fields. They are found feeding on paddy grains in the mature crop as well as on seeds won in the nursery.
    4. White rat (Tatera indica): More than one rat per burrow is common in this species. The eyes are large. The tail is longer than the body and is provided with a terminal tuft of long hairs. It is double colored.
    5. Long tailed tree mouse (Vandaleuria oleracea): The fur is soft and tail is much longer than the body. They are found in most parts of India inhabiting trees and shrubs. They damage the inflorescence of arecanut and leafy vegetables by cutting its leaves.
    6. Norway rat(Rattus norvegicus): These rats are found in waterlogged areas. This is a medium sized rat with tail more or less equal to the length of the head and body. These rats damage paddy crop. It cuts the plants at the base and chews the cut portion. Maximum attack is at the booting stage. The attack ceases after initiation of flowering. The damage is usually observed in patches away from the field bunds.
    7. Soft furred field rat (Millardia meltada): These rats are found in cultivated fields in pairs or small groups of 5 or 6. They are soft furred without spines. These rats cut the rice plants in the transplanted crop. The damage starts at the time of planting and continues up to harvest. The tillers are cut at the water level.
    8. Bush rat (Golunda elliotti): These rats are seen in places near forest area. They live under bushes in nests. These rats are destructive to coffee plants. They feed on their buds and flowers. They damage by cutting the plants in dryland rice crop.