Garcinia gummi-gutta

Garcinia gummi-gutta (6)

Garcinia gummi-gutta (Cambogia gummigutta L.,)

CAMBOGE (Kudampuli)

(Garcinia gummi-gutta var. gummi-gutta)

Garcinia, the camboge tree is a big sized glabrous and evergreen forest commonly seen in the Western Ghats of Kerala, Karnataka and in Sri Lanka. The tree is very much adapted to hill tops and plain lands alike. But its performance is best in river banks and valleys. It grows well in dry or occasionally water logged or flooded soils.

The economic part of the plant is its mature fruit rind, (-) hydroxy citric acid, attracts foreign markets for its use in medicines controlling obesity.

Varieties

Amrutham, Haritham

Planting materials

Grafts prepared through soft wood grafting or side grafting and unhealthy seedlings raised in the nursery are used for cultivation. If seedlings are planted, 50-60 per cent will be male and female takes 10-12 years for bearing. Hence planting of grafts is advocated as they ensure maternal characters including early bearing tendency.

Propagation by seedlings

Selection of mother trees: Locate mother trees that give a steady annual yield with a mean fruit weight of 200-275 g, high acid and low tannin content. Collect seeds from freshly harvested and fully ripe fruits and wash in running water and spread in a thin layer under roof. By the 20th day, seeds will be ready for sowing. Sow seeds @ two per bag in polybags during the month of August-September. Usually seed start sprouting in the month of December, but the sprouts become visible above the soil surface only by February.          In order to avoid delayed germination, simple seed treatment methods can be employed.

Method 1: In this method, the processed seeds (after drying under shade) are given a mechanical treatment. Remove seed coats of such seeds using a sharp knife without injuring the ivory colored cotyledons afresh in poly-bags at a depth of 3 cm. Germination starts in 20-25b days after sowing.

Method 2: After removing the seed coats, treat the seeds with gibberellic acid @ 250 ppm for 6 hours. Sow the seeds in nursery bags and irrigate daily. Seeds germinate in 16-20 days.

Method 3: Second method followed by transfer of the seeds to a white polypropylene cover of size 20cm x 25cm along with 30-50ml of filtered water. Tie the poly-bag along with the air inside tightly using a rubber band. Such seeds germinate in 10-12 days after sowing. In poly-bag, about 500-750 seeds can be incubated at a time. Pick up the sprouted seeds and sow in the nursery bags kept under shade.

Keep the seedlings under shade. Irrigate them regularly on alternate days during a summer month. After 3-4 months, place the seedlings under direct sunlight to trigger robust growth. At this stage, apply FYM@ 50 g per bag. In six to seven months time, seedlings will be ready for planting. 

Propagation by grafting

Two types of grafting methods are employed viz. soft wood grafting and approach grafting.

Soft wood grafting

Select scions only from specific elite trees regular in bearing, which produce high yield of large and quality fruits.

Collection of scion: Select straight growing, healthy, young shoots emerging from the primary branches with whorled leaf arrangement. Cut them to a length of 6-10 cm and store in poly-bags under humid condition. Remove leaves partly and shape the cut end to a wedge of 3-4 cm length by giving slanting cuts on two opposite sides.

Preparation of rootstock: Stock plants having 3-4 mm stem thickness are ideal for grafting. Behead the selected plants at two nodes below the terminal bud and remove all the leaves at the graft union. Use scion and root-stock of same thickness for grafting.

Grafting: Insert the wedge of the scion into the cleft made on the rootstock and secure the graft joint firmly with a black polythene tape, 1.5-2 cm wide and 30 cm long.

Care in the nursery: Immediately after grafting, cover the plants with a transparent polypropylene cover and keep under shade. By the 30th day, grafts will establish and new leaves will start emerging. Remove the polythene cover and keep under shade. Water the grafts daily using rose-can or micro sprinkler. Care should be taken to remove sprouts emerging from rootstock at frequent intervals. Three months after grafting the plants will be ready for planting in the main fields, leave the grafts under open condition in 10-15 days for hardening.

Approach grafting

Stock plants having 3-4 mm thickness are preferred and they are brought to the place where the mother tree is located. Grafting is done as in other crops and is kept intact for 45 days by which time union occurs. Graft is detached from the mother tree in three steps. The main disadvantage is that only a limited a limited number of grafts can be produced in this method. Forty-five days after grafting, thy will be ready for transferring to the main nursery for hardening. Grafts are to be watered daily using a rose-can or a micro-sprinkler. Leaf folding pests common in the nursery can be controlled by Beauveria bassiana or 1% neem oil emulsion. Care should be taken to remove sprouts emerging from root-stock at frequent intervals. Once year old grafts can be used for field planting.

Field planting

The plants can be raised as a pure crop or as a mixed crop in coconut and arecanut gardens. Take pits of size 0.75 m x 0.75 m x 0.75 m in hard and laterite soils; 0.50 m x 0.50 m x 0.50 m in sandy and alluvial soils, at a spacing of 4 m x 4 m for grafts and 7 m x 7 m for seedlings. In slopes of 15 per cent or more, for planting grafts, rows are spaced at 5 to 5.5 m and 3.5 m between trees in a row. For planting seedlings, rows are spaced at 8 to 12 m and at 6 to 8 m for trees in a row. Planting is generally done at the onset of monsoon showers. Under existing coconut plantation of 25 years and above, spacing shall be so adjusted that it should alternate with the palms in the rows. Under Kuttanad conditions, where bunds and channels alternate, planting can be done in between two palms. Fill the pits with top soil, 5 kg compost or well decomposed cattle manure and 10% neem oil garlic emulsion to avoid white ant attack before planting. The graft union shall remain just above the ground level. Provide support to the young plants. One month after planting, gently remove the polyethene tape around the graft union.

Management of plantation

Clean the field free of bushes and thick shades. Weed once in three months and mulch the basin with black polythene or dry leaves to avoid drying.

Manuring

Apply 10 kg cattle manure or compost per seedling or graft during the first year. Gradually, increase the quantity so that a well-grown tree of 15 years and above recipes 50 kg of organic manure per year.

Pruning

Grafts will grow fast from the second year onwards. Give strong support with casuarina poles at this stage. By fifth year, the tree will have 3-4m height. At this stage, height of the plant may be maintained at 3.5 to 4 m and by seventh year at 4 to 4.5 m by pruning.

Pests and diseases

Hard scales and beetles are found to infest the crop. Hard scales desap the leaves and tender shoots. Both the adult beetles and their grubs defoliate the crop inflicting heavy loss of yield. Incidence of hoppers is observed on grafts and large trees. This causes withering of leaves, drying up of branches and yield loss. Sooty mould is seen associated with hard scales. Seedling blight in the nursery stage is very common. Control it by drenching nursery nursery bed with 1% Bordeaux mixture. In grafts and large trees, sometimes, fungal thread blights have been observed to cause leaf and twig blight=. Adopt proper pruning and spray 1% Bordeaux mixture

Harvesting

Seedlings start bearing at the age of 10-12 years. Grafts start bearing from the third year onwards and will attain full bearing at the age of 12-15 years. Flowering occurs in January-March and fruits mature in July. There are reports of off-season bearers, which bear two times a year, i.e., during January-July and September-February. Mature fruits, which are orange yellow in color, drop off from the tree. Harvest mature fruits manually before they fall. Immediately after harvest, wash the fruits in running water and separate the fruit rind for processing.

Processing

Separated fruit rind is first sun dried and then either smoke -dried or oven-dried at 70-80-degree C. In order to increase the storage life and to impart softness, mix the dried rind with common salt @ 150 g and coconut oil @ 50 ml/kg of dried rind.

Garcinia powder: Drying of Garcinia cambogia juice into powdered particles gives a considerable reduction in volume. It is easy to use and is an effective method for prolonging the shelf life. Powder from fresh fruit juice along with standardized limit of additive, followed by spray drying could get powder which packed in aluminum pouches gives a storability of above 7 months with good restitution properties.

Optimized parameters of production are spray drying at inlet air temperature of 180-degree C with the atomizer speed of 22000 rpm and feed rate as 5.51 per hour. The powder is packed in LDPE inserted in aluminum foil pouches and can be stored for seven months with good reconstitution properties (wetting time, 80S and solubility index < 0.1 mm.

Garcinia gummi-gutta (Cambogia gummigutta L.,)

Root trainer technology

G. gummi-gutta produce ripe fruits during June-July and therefore seeds were not available to try the root-technology to generate seedlings of the species. However, seeds sown in potting mixture filled polypots gave 71 per cent germination, and therefore, root-trainers with mixed weed or coir pith can also be used to germinate seeds of Garcinia gummi-gutta with probably the same or more germination rate.

Vegetative propagation

Juvenile stem cuttings were tried for rooting. Three concentrations of IBA were used (3000 ppm, 4000 ppm and 5000 ppm) for the experiment. For each concentration of the rooting hormone used, 24 samples were tried in vermiculite-filled root trainers (Fig. 4.3.7). The maximum rooted samples (54%) were in 4000 ppm IBA treated samples after one month.

Garcinia gummi-gutta (Cambogia gummigutta L.,)

Seed sowing

Fresh and dried seeds after removing the seed coat are sown for better germination. They were sown both in the nursery beds and dibbled in potting mixture filled polypots. It is noted that, for a standard nursery bed, about 1.5-2 kg of seeds will be sufficient so that the minimum space will be available for the seedlings to grow and to facilitate pricking. Other samples used in the trial experiment are those with and without aril (sown both in the nursery beds and polypots) and seeds stored for five months. The results obtained are given in Table 4.3.2. When sown in polythene bags, 2 seeds were sown per bag (Fig. 4.3.4 ) and one of the seedlings was removed later.

Seed germination

In the case of seeds sown without removing the white succulent aril, it took about 5 months to start germination which continued for about a year. The germination percentage was quite low (15%) due to damage or loss of seeds by unnoticed infections within the soil. In the case of seed samples sown after removing succulent aril, 45 per cent germinated and those seeds sown after removal of seed coat registered a maximum of 82.5 per cent germination, and therefore, this method appeared the most ideal one. For samples stored for five months, only 52 per cent germination (Table 4.3.2) was recorded. Rai (1999) noted the germination period of cleaned and dried seeds as 25-60 days and germination rate as 55 per cent.

Other than sowing seeds in nursery beds and dibbling in polypots, Rai (1999) also suggested the following method to raise seedlings from stored seeds. The seeds are to be mixed with cowdung or farmyard manure and tightly packed in paddy straw in the form of a bundle. The bundle is then soaked in water to make it wet and then kept in a shallow pit which is slightly deeper than the thickness of the bundle. The pit is covered with 5-6 cm thick layer of soil and regularly watered, once in two days. The seeds are reported to germinate by about 45-50 days.

Otherwise, a pit of 60 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm, lined with paddy straw and a layer of farmyard manure or cow dung, is prepared and the stored seeds are spread in the pit, which is again covered with straw (Rai, 1999). Several layers can be made alternating with seed layer and straw layer and the top of the pit may be covered with a layer of straw and kept pressed with sand bags or stones. Seeds germinated within 30-40 days (Rai, 1999) when they were removed and potted. It is also suggested to spray Carbofuran (60g/1x1m2) in the nursery bed, once in two months, to avoid the infestation by ticks and mites. Also, the practice of spraying Copper Oxychloride (3 g in one litre of water per one square metre of bed) is recommended, which will prevent fungal attack on tender leaves.

Nursery pests and control

Up to 10 per cent damage of nursery seedlings due to a dipteran leaf miner was noticed in the nursery seedlings of G. gummi-gutta, which led to crinkling and subsequent withering of leaves (Fig. 4.3.5). Also, mild attack of aphids in a few seedlings, sucking the sap of tender leaves was recorded. Very few instances of root feeding by termites also occur in the seedlings maintained in nursery beds.

Nursery diseases and control

In the seedbed nursery of G. gummi-gutta, very low incidence of collar rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn was observed. The disease affected 10 to 20-day-old seedlings, causing water-soaked longitudinal lesions at collar region, which turn to dark brown in colour and become sunken and necrotic in due course. Timely application of fungicide (Carboxin, 0.1% a.i.) saved the seedlings. Other minor foliage infections recorded in seedbeds and container seedlings include leaf-spot caused by species like Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Phomopsis sp., Curvularia lunata and Pestalotiopsis species. The disease caused by C. gloeosporioides is characterized by dark reddish brown colour, measuring 2-3 mm in diameter, with a pale greyish margin. The small spots become coalesced and form large necrotic lesions of 6-8 mm diameter. Withering of tissues in necrotic areas was also noticed, while shot-hole formation was not observed. Curvularia lunata and Pestalotiopsis sp. were found associated with necrotic lesions on leaf margins and leaf tips. Small greyish brown spots with concentric rings of pale and dark coloured areas were observed in container seedlings. Isolations from these spots yielded a Phomopsis sp. as the causative organism. Even though, the foliage infections in nursery of G. gummi-gutta seedlings were of minor significance, application of Dithane M45 (0.1% a.i.) at weekly interval was found effective in protecting the seedlings.

Among more than 425 species of Garcinia in the world, 22 species are found in India. Earlier, diseases were recorded from species like G. indica Choisy, G. livingstonei T. Anders. and G. mangostana L. These include leaf rust caused by Aecidium garciniae Sund. et Rao, leaf spots caused by Cercospora dapoliana Garud, C. vismicola Chupp., and Septoria sp. in G. indica ( Patel et al., 1949; Sundaram and Rao, 1957; Seshadri et al., 1972). However, so far no disease has been recorded from G. gummi-gutta trees in Kerala.

Pricking and maintenance of seedlings Seedlings in the nursery bed, by about 3 months, attain an average height of 11.5 cm with 2-4 leaves, when they can be pricked and poly-potted (Fig. 4.3.6). Before out-planting the potted seedlings are to be regularly watered and pots weeded to maintain them for about 4-5 months, when they will attain an average height of 17.5 cm.

Garcinia gummi-gutta (Cambogia gummigutta L.,)

Seed collection, processing and storage

Seed collection:

The G. gummi-gutta trees bear ripened fruits mostly during the rainy season of June-July. Even though they fall on ripening, in order to procure sufficient quantity of seeds, the branches of trees bearing yellow, ripened fruits can be shaken or beaten and the required number of fruits collected. The fruits fallen on the ground after ripening deteriorate within a month, leaving behind the seeds. The rind and the pulpy parts of fruits are to be removed and the succulent white aril of seeds thoroughly washed in water to get clean seeds, before they are sundried and stored. Care should also be taken to discard flat and thin seeds, as they may not germinate.

Seed characteristics:

On an average, 6-10 fruits weigh one kilogram and each of them will contain 5- 8 seeds. On an average, 75 kg of fresh fruits contain one kilogram of seeds, which usually contain 590-600 numbers. The fruits are of the average size of 5.8 cm x 6.5 cm, almost globose, ridged and light yellow in colour. After removing the rind and also the white succulent aril, the brown, ovoid seeds of an average size 3.3 cm x 1.5 cm can be used for germination.

Fruit and seed characteristics of G. gummi-gutta

Colour Size (cm) 

Colour Size (cm) Shape No. per kg
Fruit Light yellow 5.8 x 6.5 Depressed globose 6-10
Seed Pale Brown 3.3 x 1.5 Ovoid 590-600

Seed storage

The dried seeds have to be sown in the nursery, as early as possible, and storage will lead to infestation of pests and mould. Rai (1999) had suggested to mix the fresh, cleaned and dried seeds with ash, farmyard manure and red earth and pack inside paddy straw to retain their viability for about six months.

Seed pests and control

No instance of pest damage was noticed in both fresh and stored seeds of G. gummi-gutta.

Seed diseases and control

Only few fungi like species of Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Geniculosporium, Scolecobasidium and sterile mycelium were recorded on the seeds of G. gummigutta in blotter tests. Relative per cent incidence (RPI) of these fungi was very low and ranged from one to six. Cladosporium species recorded the highest incidence. As the incidences of spermoplane microbes were very low, seed dressing with fungicide is not usually carried out.

Seed processing and pre-treatments

The rind and pulpy part of fruits are removed and the seeds are thoroughly washed in water. The cleaned seeds are spread out and dried under shade for 4-5 days. Removal of the white succulent aril and seed coat is found to enhance the germination rate, substantially. However, trials are also conducted with processed seed samples like seeds with succulent aril, seeds without succulent aril, seeds without seed coat and those stored for 5 months.

Garcinia gummi-gutta (Cambogia gummigutta L.,)

Log quality:

The tree is widely grown in Kerala, mainly for its fruits, even though the timber is suitable for making match boxes, splints and posts. The grey, close-textured wood is moderately heavy (640-800 kg/m3), but is not durable. However, heart-wood of old trees is hard and durable. The logs are straight, up to 10 meter long and about 1 meter girth; branches are also straight and up to 5 meter long. Other products and uses The fruits are acidic and are eaten raw or pickled. The fleshy rind, fresh or after drying and smoking, is used as a condiment for flavoring curries and as a substitute for tamarind, mango and lime in various preparations. It is also used for polishing gold and silver ornaments and as a substitute for formic acid and acetic acid for coagulation of rubber latex. The bark yield Gummi-gutt or Camboge, which is mainly used as a pigment in miniature paintings and water colours, besides its medicinal value as a purgative, hydragogue and emetic. The bark-gum also makes a good varnish. The seed is a good source of edible fat.

Garcinia gummi-gutta (Cambogia gummigutta L.,)

Local names: Kodam-puli, Meen-puli, Pinenga, Pinaru, Koda-puli, Gorakka-puli, Kedaka-puli. 

Species description:

Trees, up to 25 m high with a rounded, dense canopy; bark smooth, black, exuding a yellow gum; branchlets horizontal and often slightly drooping, glabrous. Leaves simple, oblong or elliptic, rarely lanceolate, entire, glabrous, glossy, dark green with faint lateral nerves, acute or obtusely short acuminate at apex, narrowed into the petioles at base. Flowers white, pale white or greenish white, polygamous; male flowers in umbellate clusters, fascicled in the axils with 4, obovate, unequal sepals, 4 obovate or oblong, concave petals and 12-20, or more stamens, inserted on the prominent receptacles with bilocular anthers, basifixed and dehiscing vertically; female flowers solitary with numerous staminoides and ovoid or subglobose ovary and stigma rays spreading and free near to the base. Berries light yellow, fleshy, 6-8 grooved, depressed globose, with 6-8 seeds covered by succulent, white aril, pale brown, veined.

Distribution:

Moist deciduous forests and other areas in the midlands and hilly uplands, especially in the southern part of Kerala, often cultivated in homesteads; endemic to peninsular India from Karnataka southwards.

Phenology:

Flowering from January onwards and fruits ripen during May to September.

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