Hopea parviflora

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This round headed huge tree is found in the wet evergreen forests of Western Ghats. Full grown tree usually attains 30-37 m height and 4-4.5 m breadth at the end of 40 years. Mostly distributed in areas which are located in between sea level and 1100 m above it. Heavy rainfall and properly drained and aerated soil are necessary for its growth. Seen abundantly along river banks and hill slopes with fertile soil.

Artificial propagation

Artificial propagation is by seeds.Seeds can be stored in sacks up to 20 days. 1 kg will contain about 2500 seeds. Both direct sowing or by transferring nursery raised seedlings to fields are practiced. It is good to sow seeds soon after collection as they are recalcitrant. In the case of direct sowing, shady and weed free localities are preferable. Shade trees should be removed after 4-5 years of growth. Usually a distance of 3m x 3m , or 4m x 4m are used. If nursery raised seedlings are used for planting, shady areas have to be preferred. After sowing, soil covering of thickness not more than 4 mm is given. If there is no rainfall, regular watering is essential. Germination takes place within 2-3 weeks.


Natural regeneration

Seen in forests by germination of wind dispersed seeds during rainy season. Only in sunny regions, seedlings are found to grow well.

Planting and management

Seedlings of 14 to 16 months old plants are to be transferred to fields. Planting is done in pits of 45 cm cube with the onset of monsoon at a spacing of 4m x 4m filled with 5kg FYM. Weeding and thinning are necessary for seedling growth. From second year onwards depending on size of plant, 50-70g N,40-50g P2O5, 40-60g K2O along with 30 kg FYM are applied to each plant.

If the area is fertile, within 40 years, timber of above 20 m height and 150 cm diameter will be obtained.

Even though Kampakam is an ever green tree, it will drop mature leaves during the months of December and April. They will produce pale yellowish flowers during January to February. Seeds attain maturity during the months of May-June. They can overcome drought as they are deep rooted. They prefer wet areas. Although they are shade tolerant during their early stages of growth later it becomes a light demander. Dense vegetation will destroy its seedlings. It is sensitive to fire and frost.

Plant protection
Usually the tree is affected by fungi like Fomes lamaocnis, Tramelies spongi pellis etc which will cause rotting. Leaf spot by Botryodiplodia theobrommae is serious in some parts. Plants are also affected by stem borers like Xyleborus, Mussicus etc which can be controlled by quinalphos 0.05 per cent.

Timber is having more strength, weight and hardness than teak. One cubic meter timber weights about 945 kg. It is not easy to differentiate heartwood and sapwood. Reddish brown timber possess white patches here and there.



As bark contains tannin, it is used in tanning industry. Termite and pest infections are rare, so it used in manufacture of furniture, railway sleeper, buildings etc.

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