Protection of Plants (Drumaraksha)

Protection of Plants (Drumaraksha)

Protection of Plants (Drumaraksha) (1)

Drumaraksha deals with the protective measures to be adopted to save the plant species from severe winter, drought, thunderstorm, flood, smoke, excess heat, pollution, pest/insect attack etc.

Drumaraksha

Plant protection

Plant protection measures for trees were widely practiced by the Vrikshayurvedic experts since time immemorial. They described various protective measures of trees from Neeharam (dew), Chandavattam (cyclone), Dhoomam (fumes), Vaisvanaram (fire), Jalakaran (spider), etc.

Guidelines for planting and protecting trees

  • Trees should be planted in a straight line and the middle portion of the plot should be exclusively earmarked for edible fruit trees. Behind this, it is recommended to plant other suitable trees. There should be a bio fencing around the border of the plantation and trenches should be dug to prevent the attack of wild animals.
  • Ash collected from trees, burned by lighting is spread at the basin of trees to prevent problems due to dew
  • Ash obtained from trees affected by lighting is used as a good fire fighter.
  • It is also considered as an excellent fire protector for trees.
  • To prevent trees from environmental pollution, heavy rain, toxic rain (Garavrishti); Sitasalyodanam (cooked with rice) along with curd and Saindhavam(rock salt) is spread in and around the trees.
  • To prevent pest attack, install a vibration device (made of Borassus flabellifer leaves) charged with 108 times potentiated mantras, and is placed under the cultivated land to protect crops from insects, rats, ant, etc.

Criteria adopted for diagnosis of plant diseases

According to Vrikshayurveda, similar to human beings diseases occur in plant species through Nija (endogenous) and Agantu (exogenous) causes. Endogenous diseases are caused due to the aggravation and depletion of Vata, Pitta, and Kapha while exogenic diseases occur due to infections, injuries, burns, fractures, natural calamities, etc.

Narna miva vrikshanam vata pitta kaphat gada:

Sambhavati nirupyaata: kariyat tat doshamasanam.”

Based on the physical characters, signs and symptoms of the diseases, a Vrikshayurvedic physician should identify, assess and analyze the degree of aggravation and depletion of the Doshas, and should prescribe remedies accordingly by utilizing the plants, animal products and minerals in various form to pacify the aggravated or depleted Doshas to regain or restore the health or to cure the plants affected by the diseases.

The details are given below highlight the Etiopathology, physical characters including specific signs and symptoms of each Dosha under Vatavyadhi (diseases due to the vitiation of Vata), Pittavyadhi (diseases due to the vitiation of pitta) and Kaphavyadhi (diseases due to the vitiation of Kapha).

The etiopathology, physical characters including specific signs and symptoms of each Dosha under Vatavyadhi

Sl. No.

Name of Doshas

Etiopathology

Physical appearance, Signs and symptoms

1

Vata

Examining the soil conditions is one of the important criteria adopted for detecting aggravation/depletion of Vata properties in the soil; predominance of dryness (ruksha), astringent taste (kashayam) etc.

Feeding of substances having the above properties (Guna) causes diseases due to vitiation of Vata.

Excess irrigation also causes Vata.

1. Vata predominant plant species are

-Lean

-thin (Krisa)

2. Atrophy/deformity in

-trunk

-stem

-branches (Sthamba/Kanda/ Skandha/ Sakha)

3. Galndular formations (Granthi) in

-fruits(Phala)

-leaves (Pathra) Rough/hard fruit and other parts

5. Deficiency in

-pulp

-juice and

-taste of fruits (Aswaduphala)

2

Pitta

1. Aggravation of pitta dosha appears generally during the summer (Grishma) and autumn (Vasanta) seasons.

2. Excess administration of substances possessing alkaline (ksariya/khanija), pingent (katu), sour (amla), salty (lavaniya) and Sahrp (theekshana) properties causes vitiation of pitta dosha.

1. Unhealthy physical appearance with the untimely occurrence of pale leaves (pitapatrata- akala)

2. Falling of immature fruits (Phalsrava)

3. Wilting of plants due to diseases affecting the roots (Padavisoshana)

4. The unhealthy physical appearance of leaves- flowers- fruits (Patra- phushpa- phala malinatva) due to environmental pollution.

5. Untimely yellowing and falling of leaves which leads to the destruction of plants (Patradi sadana)

3

Kapha

Administration of substances that are sweet (madhura), unctuous (snigdha), sour (amla) and cold dominating potency (seethaveerya) in excess causes kaphaja diseases. Plants are more susceptible to kaphaja diseases in winter and spring.

1. Delay in fruiting (Athika- laphalata)

2. Paleness of leaves, fruits (Pandutva)

3. Curved leaves (Kubja patrata)

4. Stunted growth of fruits (Avrddhi)

5. Untimely fruiting (Akalaphalita)

6. Tasteless fruit (Nirasata)

(Surapala, including selected portions from Brihatsamhita, Lokopara)

Other etiological factors

External injury with axe causes vitiation of kapha, produces oozing from the stem, which gradually weakens the trees/plant species

Improper care leads to diseases due to vata

Due to the vitiation of vat, pitta and kapha jaundice occur in trees and plants, causes yellowing especially on stem, root, and leaves.

Unviable seeds, improper care and external injuries cause vitiation of vata, pitta and kapha, which leads to infertility

Lack of absorption and accumulation of water will directly affect the growth of tender leaves.

Presence of ants around the tree for a longer period will cause damage to the tree

Fire, wind, friction between trees, growing under the shade, inhabited with large group of birds near the tree, presence of woody climbers over the trees and growth of grass shrubs under the tree also affects its health.

Criteria fro the identification of various constitutions of plants (Prakriti).

In Vrikshayurveda plants are classified into vata, pitta and kapha, prakriti like human beings.

Vrikshayurveda Classification of plants under Vata, pitta and kapha prakriti

Sl.No

Prakriti

Physical characters

Remarks

1

Vata

-slender (krisam)

-tall, (deerkam)

-light in weight (lakhu)

-rough surface (ruksham)

-suffering from insomnia (nidraheenam)

-unhealthy appearance

-lack flowering and fruiting

Tolerance to heat

2

Pitta

-have more branches

-branches break away frequently

-yield fruits

-some times fruits ripen untimely

-aneamic (pandu)

-abundant leaves and flowers

-trees medium size and height

Intolerance to withstand bright sunlight

3

Kapha

-stout bulky stems and branches

-plenty of thick leaves

-profuse flowering and fruiting

-circular trees stem

-fruits are beautiful and tasty