Research on Organic Agriculture (Chithreekaranam)

Research (Chithreekaranam)

Research (Chithreekaranam) (2)

Chithreekaranam (Research on Organic agriculture / Horticulture / Medicinal plants and Biotechnological Intervention)

This is one of the important areas to be brought under an in-depth study and analysis with the support of modern science and technology. It is to be noted that the Vrikshayurveda experts have made several research attempts (ancient biotechnological interventions) and have developed a number of new techniques related to plant species. Some of these techniques are aroma-inducing techniques, in which they explain how to introduce scent in unscented flowers, color altering techniques in which they explain how to alter the color in cotton plant, floral techniques, techniques to ensure profuse flowering and fruiting throughout the year / off-season, production techniques for seedless fruit production, fruit preservation techniques, Fast propagation techniques, Biotechnical applications for the conservation of plant species, Plant altering / hybridization techniques, Improved fruit production techniques, Taste altering techniques of fruits etc.

Modern Biotechnology can scientifically validate these concepts, theories and hypothesis described in Vrikshayurveda literature. This may lead to the discovery of novel biodynamic molecules, elite variations of economically important medicinal plants, production of disease-resistant, high yielding varieties and those containing enriched active principles, etc. and identification of elite or superior plant genotypes.

Ayurvedic scriptures also describe characters that are based on biotic and abiotic factors as guidelines in the identification of plant types, which are most desirable for drug preparation. Validation of these characters to understand their role in the development of superior genotype can be done using tools like chemical prospecting, complimented with genetic fingerprinting. Comparative analysis of accessions collected from random sampling procedures and those based on Ayurvedic leads could definitely provide necessary insight to this end.

Apart from this, other areas brought under the discussion includes potential linkages of Vrikshayurveda in Agriculture for future application, relevant prescriptions for plant health management, review on relevant experimental trials, scope of Vrikshayurveda for conducting medicinal / food plants described in Vrikshayurveda.

Ancient biotechnological interventions

The concept of modern biotechnology became popular in 1970’s with the development of molecular biology. In fact, biotechnology is an ancient science dating back to the period before Christ. In countries like India, China, Egypt, Rome, Greece etc, bio technological means were utilized for product development during ancient times. The fermentation technique developed by ancient Ayurveda scholars was one such process for the production of medicated, self generated alcoholic drinks for health care. Similarly, the beer-making technology developed in the West using yeasts another notable biotechnological intervention.

At the global level, biotechnology is revolutionizing the development of novel processes, products, and services in different sectors like healthcare, agriculture, industry, environment etc. By effectively utilizing the rich and diverse knowledge of Ayurveda in union with modern biotechnological tools, it is possible to develop divers new processes and products.

Vrikshayurveda established a four-pronged approach towards the development of biotechnology. It is directly related with humans, plants, animals and microbes. The ultimate objective was the conservation and sustainable utilization of biological resources for ensuring food, health and economic security of the nation as well as of the future generations.

Vriksahyurvedic experts in the field of plant biotechnology have made several attempts and they have developed a number of new techniques related to:

  • Aroma inducing techniques- in which they demonstrated how to impart scent in unscented flowers.
  • Color altering techniques- in which they demonstrated how to change the color of cotton fibers in cotton plants.
  • Floral techniques- in which they demonstrate the methods for inducing flowering in plants irrespective of seasons.
  • Production techniques- seedless fruit production technology.
  • Fruit preservation techniques
  • Fast propagation techniques
  • Biotechnological application for the conservation of plant species
  • Plant altering/ hybridization techniques
  • Improved fruit production techniques
  • Taste altering techniques for fruiting

These techniques are to be reinvestigated and scientifically validated. Some of the research/biotechnological interventions carried by the Vrikshayurvedic scholars are given below:

Tweaking plants for fragrant flowers

The flowers in your garden could soon be attracting visitors in hordes, not only for their various hues bu their heavenly scent as well.

Scientists and plant biologists have rated the first sweet whiff of success in engineering plants to produce highly scented flowers. This was one of the highlights of the international conference held at Thiruvananthapuram on Micro and Metabolic regulators in pants hosted by the Rajiv center for biotechnology (RGCB)

Alexander Vainstein, from the faculty of agriculture, Food and Environment at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel, said, “Petunia flowers have been traditionally used for their beauty and attractive colors. My experiment led to fragrant petunia flowers.”In his presentation on the topic ‘Specialized metabolic pathways: cues controlling floral scent production’, Dr. Vainstein said, “Genetically enhanced Petunia has higher floral scent compounds and pigmentation, which can be commercially exploited. We also found humans can distinguish the scent of genetically enhanced flowers, making it a lucrative proposition for the perfume industry.”

The conference also highlighted research advances in plant biology to create wines with floral flavors. A press note quoting Dr. Vainstein said transgenic yeast had been found to be a successful agent in developing wines with unique floral flavors. (Nandakumar, 2017)

It is interesting to note that the result of this scientific study is supported by the Vrikshayurvedic observations made by the ancient scholars of Vrikshayurveda.

Biological interventions

Introduce scent in unscented flowers

1.1 Aromatic soil is prepared by mixing scented flowers and applied on the basin of the tree. This is flowed by pouring the aromatic decoction prepared from Dhava (Anofeissus latifolia) and Kadhira (Accacia chundra). Then the stem is smeared with paste of sandalwood and fumigated Gritham (clarified butter) along with aromatic plants/substances.

Colour changing technique of cotton (white color to yellow-tinged/reddish-orange similar to the colour of fire)

2.1 Powder prepare from Yavam (Hordeum vulgare), Nisa (Curcuma longa), Palasa (Butea monosperma) is sprinkled and the medicated deccotion prepared from above-mentioned ingredients is poured at the basin of the tree.

2.2 Paste prepared from the powder of Shalmali (bark) (Bombax ceiba), Nisha (Curcuma longa), Neeli (Indigo feratinctoria) Triphala Hareethaki (Terminalia Chebula) Amalaki (Emblica officinalis) Vibhitaki (Terminalia bellirica) and Kushtam (Sausssurea lappa) is mixed with medicated liquor prepared from sugar cane juice and smeared over the cotton plant for changing the color of white cotton to parrot green color.

Fruiting and flowering profusely irrespective of seasons

3.1 Paste prepared from the boiled tuberous root of Vidhari kandha (Ipomea mauritiana) in sugar cane juice is smeared over the bottom of the tree. Then sugar cane juice is poured at the basin.

3.2 Paste prepared from Tila (Sesamum indicum), Vidangam (Embelia ribes) and Gomaya (Cow Dung) is mixed with sugar cane juice is poured at the basin of the tree/plants.

Production of seedless fruit

4.1 Paste prepared from the powder of Madhu kusumam (flower of Madhuca nerifolia), Gunja (Abrus precatorius), Sarkara (jaggery) and Udumbaram (Ficus racemosa) is mixed with Gritham (clarified butter) and Madhu (honey) and the same is inserted in the hole made on the stem of the tree. The hole is sealed and smeared with dung of the calf. This is followed by irrigation with the decoction prepared form the sweet substances.

4.2. Madhu Yeshti (Glycyrrhza glabra), Sita (sugar candy), Kustam ( Saussurea lappa) and Madhu Pushpam (flower of Madhuca nerifolia) are mixed, steamed and placed at the bottom of the tree.

Increasing the shelf life of ripening fruit

5.1. Skin obtained from just above the shoulders of a goat having prominent hum is tied over the branches of the trees.

Late ripening of fruit upto 1 year

6.1. Hollow bone (Nalakashti) of a monkey, which was killed in an elephant, is pierced into the stem of the tree/plant.

To prevent falling of ripened fruit from peduncle

7.1. Bark of the branch of a tree is peeled open and smeared with a paste of Vidangam (Embelica ribes), honey and milk. This portion is tied with grass and peeled bark, followed by pouring milk.

Quick germination

8.1. Liquid bio manure prepared from Vasa (fat) and flesh of pig and fish is mixed with milk and irrigated followed by fumigation with the same ingredients.

8.2. Paste prepared from Ankola thilam (oil obtained from Alangium salvifolium, fat of Sukara (pig), and Sisumaram (Crocodylus porosus) is smeared over the seed. It is own in the soil and irrigated with Karakajala (water obtained from hail)

8.3. Seed of Dadimam (Punicum granatum) is treated through Bhavan process potentiated with blood of hen for 21 times and sown in the soil.

Altering technique

9.1. Ripened seed of Ambra (Mangifera indica) and similar trees are dipped in each of these for a particular period of time, water I which fish is cooked, Ankola thilam (oil obtained from Alangium salvifolium), Dugtham (milk) and Gritham (clarified butter). This is kept for prescribed period and then sown in the soil. By doing this seeds will germinate as Brihati (Solanum melongena).

To produce big sized fruit

10.1. Seed of Vrathaka (Solanum melongena) is smeared with Gritham (clarified butter), Mashikam (honey) and dried in sun light. Put the seed inside a tender fruit of Kushmanda (Benincasa hispida) by making a small hole followed by smearing with cow dung. When the Kushmanda ripen, separate the seed from inside and sow it.

To increase the size of banana fruit

11.1. The dung cake prepared from the dung of donkey (Khara) and horse (Thuranga) is used for heating an iron rod. The bottom of banana plant is horizontally touched with this hot iron rod. This will help to produce elephant trunk sized banana fruit.

Fruiting profusely

12.1. Nirumamasam (Human flesh) is treated with Ankola (Alangium salvifolium), Chagadugtham (goat milk), and oil cake of Tila (Sesamum indicum), Madhu (honey) and applied at the basin of the mango tree. This will result in profuse fruiting similar to grape bunch.

Altering taste

13.1. Paste prepared from the powder of Krimirupu (Emblia ribes), Yavam( Hordeum vulgare), Yeshtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra) along with jaggery and milk is applied on the basin of the Nimba tree (Azadirachta indica) followed by irrigation with milk. This will help to alter the bitterness of neem fruit to sweet fruit.

Prevent decay of trees

14.1. Sukara (Sus scrofa) bone is pierced around the tree stem to prevent decay.


15.1. To produce fruit for all seasons

15.1.1. A mixture prepared from cow dung, Gritham (clarified butter) and soil is applied at the basin of Koushmandi (Benincas hispida), vine which is growing through a hole made on the Manthara vriksha (Bauhinia racemosa). This result in fruiting irrespective of all season.

15.2. Disinfectant recipe

15.2.1. A paste prepared from Karanja (Pongamia pinnata), Aragwatha (Casiia fistula), Leshuna (Allium sativum), Saptaparna (Alstonia scholaris), Musta (Cyperus rotundus) and Vidanga (Emblica ribes) along with cow’s urine is applied on the affected part.

15.3. Snake repellent

15.3.1. Fumigate with seed of Karpasam (Gossypium barbadense) along with shed skin of snake

15.4. To check falling of unripe fruits

15.4.1. Irrigate with medicated milk decoction prepared from Kulatham (Dolichos biflorus), Masha (Vigna mungo), Mudga (Vigna radiata), Tila(Sesamum indicum) and Yava(Hordeum vulgare)

15.5. Pot flowered

15.5.1 Rhizome of Nymphaea treated with Ankola thila (oil obtained form Alangium salvifolium) is put in cow dung for some days and is planted in a pot filed with Karakajalam (water obtained from hail) and mud. Nymphaea will flower in the pot itself within a short time.

15.6. Induce aroma in flowers

15.6.1 Scented soil is prepared by adding different flowers having aromatic qualities, either alone or in combination. Apply scented soil, in larger quantity at the bottom of the tree.

15.7. Induce scent in unscented flowers

15.7.1 Medicated water is prepared from Kushta (Saussurea lappa), Pathram (Pogostemon heyneanus), Muramanchi (Sanseveria roxburghiana), Mustha (Cyperus rotundus), Tagaram (Valeriana wallichii) and Useeram (Chrysopogon zizanioides). Apply this medicated water at the bottom of the tree for a period of one month.

15.8. To enhance the sweetness of the fruit

15.8.1. Pour milk at the bottom of the trees

15.9. To prevent the water retention due to dew

15.9.1. Prepare ash by burning side branches of the trees growing in the middle of the paddy field. The well-powdered ash is put in a porous cloth, made into a bundle and sprinkled over the paddy field.

15.9.2. Fumigate with a mixture prepared from Arista (Azadirachta indica), Gosringa (cow’s horn), Turangakesa (horse hair), Sana (Lens culinaris), Gritham (clarified butter), Sisumara Taila (oil/fat of Esturine crocodile)(Crocodyus porosus) and Kola meda (hog fat) (Sus scrofa) to treat Vata rogas of plants.


Pre and post-treatment prescriptions recommended for seeds

According to Vrikshayurveda, pre and post-treatment of seeds are essential to check infections, pest attacks, diseases, diseases occurring due to climate changes, atmospheric pollution and nutritional deficiencies. There are several useful prescriptions mentioned in Vrikshayurveda to induce quick germination. These prescriptions will further help to provide adequate nutritional supplements for the healthy growth of plants/trees. There are more than 25 such novel prescriptions mentioned in various Vrikshayurvedic textbooks. Some of the selected prescriptions are given below for conducting research and development studies and field level experiment trials to standardize the protocol and prescription integrating with modern science and technology.

1.1. Properly dried seeds are soaked in milk and dried again. This process is repeated for five days, and fumigated with powder of Vidanga (Emblica ribes) along with ghee (clarified butter) (Sarangadhara padhati).

1.2. The seeds are soaked in milk and dried rubbed with cow dung paste, and dried again. A paste prepared from the powder of Vidanga (Emblica ribes) along with honey is smeared over the seeds for a number of times. This will help quick germination (Srangadhara padhathi).

1.3. As a special treatment before planting, seeds are smeared with a paste prepared from milk, ghee, cow dung, Vidanga (Embelia ribes), Useera (Chrysopogon zizanioides), Tila (Sesamum indicum), Honey, Ikshura seeds (Saccharum officinarum) and Brihati (Solanum indicum).

1.4. Oil seeds are smeared with cow dung only (Arthasastra).

1.5. To enhance germination of seeds, a liquid bio manure prepared from Vreehi (Oryza sativa), Masha (Phaseolus mungo), Tila (Sesamum indicum), Yava (Hordeum valgare), along with decayed meat (any type) is recommended, followed by fumigation with Nisa (Curcuma longa) (Brihat Samhita).

1.6. Seeds are soaked in milk and mixed in a paste made using cow dung powder, honey and powder of Vidanga (Embelica ribes). This will enhance the germination of seeds (Surapala).

As a pre-treatment, one has to sow Ellu (Sesamum indicum), Masha(Vigna mungo) etc. to the soil and after flowering, these plants are removed and used as bio manure for planting trees or sowing seeds (Surapala)

Nutritional care(growth promoters, bio manure/liquid bio manure)

2.1 Growth promoters/simulators

2.1.1. Broadcast Venkaduku (Brassica juncae) at the bottom of Khajuram (Pheonix dactylifera), Vilwam (Aegle marmelos) and Lekucha (Artocarpus hirsutus).

2.1.2. Liquid bio manure prepared from Pinnyakam (oil cake) of Sesamum indicum and Thushavari (one-day old water used for washing rice) is poured at the basin of Ambra (Mangifera indica).

2.1.3. Medicated oil is prepared from the leaves of Nichulam (Barringtonia racemosa) and pour the same at the basin of the tree.

2.1.4. Medicated decoction prepared from Vreehi (Oryza sativa) Mamsam (meat) is poured at the bottom of the tree.

2.1.5. Medicated decoction prepared from kulatha (Dolichos biflorus is poured at the basin of the Dadima (Punica granatum)

2.1.6. Pour the water used for washing fish at the basin of Dadima (Punica granatum)

2.1.7. Medicated water prepared from Yavam (Hordeum valgare) is recommended for the growth of young trees.

2.1.8.Kunapajalam (liquid manure) is recommended for the growth of young trees

2.1.9. Paste prepared from the powder of Vidanga (Emlica ribes) and Tila (Sesamum indicum) along with milk is recommended for the growth of young trees.

2.1.10. Pounded mass of Masha (Vigna mungo) is applied around the basin of trees to promote the growth of aged Amalaki (Phyllanthus emblica).

2.2. Profuse flowering and fruiting

2.2.1. Paddy straw is prepared in the form of rope and tied over the branches of Panasam (Artocarpus heterophyllus) followed by pouring of the decoction prepared from Vacha(Acorus calamus) over the rope.

2.2.2. A mixture is prepared from kukudanam pureesham (chicken manure), expressed juice of meat (Mamsa rasam), one day old water used for washing rice (kanchikam) and poured at the basin of the Gosthani (Vitis vinifera)

2.2.3. A mixture is prepared from Jaggery, Gritham (clarified butter), Paya (milk) and Madhu (honey) and poured at the basin of trees- Koovalam (Aegle marmelos) and Vlar maram (Limonia acidissima)

2.2.4. Medicated water is prepared form Jambu (Syzygium cumini), Asokham (Saraca asoka), Useeram (Chrysopogan zizanioides) and Mustha (Cyperus rotundus) along with Sura (self-generated alcoholic drink) and poured at the basin of the plant.

2.2.5. Pour the self-generated medicated alcoholic drink (Madyam) at the basin of Mulla (Jasminum sambac), Kanaveeran (Nerium indicum) and Ponkurunji (yellow colored flower Strobilanthes sp.).

2.2.6. Pour the Gomuthram (cow’s urine) (approximately 60 ml) at the basin of Valli mulla (Jasminum multiflorum).

2.2.7. Prepare a mixture from Gopaya (cow’s milk) and cold water and pour at the basin of Pathiri (Sterespermum suaveolens).

2.2.8. A mixture of flesh and water is poured at the baisn of Karpasam (Gossypium hirsutum).

2.2.9. A mixture is prepared from Milk, Tila (Sesamum indicum), cow dung and water and poured at the basin of Mulla (Jasminum sambac), Saptachata (Alstonia scholaris).

2.2.10. A mixture is prepared from meat, flesh of fish and water and poured at the basin of Chemanthi (Chrysanthemum indicum).

2.2.11. One day old rice gruel is prepared from leaves and root of bark of Koshataki (Luffa acutangula), Mamsam (meat), Pippali (Piper longum) and poured at the basin of llippa followed by irrigation with fumigated water.

2.2.12. Irrigate with nutrient liquid manure (kunapajala) and milk.

2.3. Promote early flowering and fruiting

2.3.1. Paste prepared from Gritham (clarified butter), Vidanga (Embelica ribes), milk, water and honey is applied at the bottom of the tree externally to promote early flowering and fruiting and to get quality flowers and fruits.

2.4. Bio manure/liquid bio manure/bio fertilizer

2.4.1. Cooked Masha (Vigna mungo) is applied at the bottom of a wild variety of Praachina amalakam (Phyllanthus emblica) tree.

2.4.2. Powder is prepared from Yavam (Hordeum vulagre) is applied at the bottom of Naalikera (Cocous nucifera)

2.4.3. Medicated juice is prepared from the fruits of Angola (Alangium salviifolium), along with Gritha (clarified butter), Madhu( honey), and Sukura Vasa (pig fat) is poured at the bottom of the mango tree for the production of sweet and tasty mango and to increase size of the mango.

2.5. Fumigation

2.5.1. Fumigate with Triphala powder below the branches of Harithaki (Terminalia chebula), Vibhithaki (Terminalia bellirica), Amalaki(Phyllanthus emblica) and fruits of Dadima (Punica granatum) to increase the fruit size.

2.5.2. Fumigate with Triphala Hareethaki (Terminalia chebula), Vibhitaki (Terminalia bellirica) and Amalaki (Phyllathus emblica) in and around trees to increase the size of the fruits and yield.

2.5.3. Fumigate with flowers of Sarpasham (Brassica alba), Arjuna (Terminalia cuneata) along with meat of Rabbit (Lepus nigricollis), Vidanga (Embelia ribes) and Red curcuma (Curcuma zedoaria) in and around trees to cure diseases and for profuse flowering and fruiting.

2.5.4. Fumigate with Kadalidalam (Plantian leaves), Sarshapam (Brassica juncae) and Karimeen (Etroplus suratensis) in and around the trees to promote early flowering and fruiting.

2.5.5. Fumigate with powder of Tgaram (Valeriana wallichii), Kushta (Saussurea lappa) and Ajadanyam(Lepidium sativum) around the tree and at the bottom of the tree to promote quick flowering and fruiting and also to get quality flowers and fruits.

2.5.6. Fumigate with paddy straw followed by application of mixture prepared with Tila (Sesamum indicum) and water at the basin of Padola (Trichosanthus anguina) during the month of phalguna. The plant will fruit in the same moneht profusely.

2.6. Increase the fruit size/ yield/ quality and quantity of fruits

2.6.1. Paste prepared from fruit of Mangifera indica (Amraphalam) is applied over the branch and fruit of Dadima (Punica granatum) to increase the fruit size.

2.6.2. Ksharodhaka (medicated alkaline water) is mixed with powder of Yava (Hordeum valgare), Tushajala (paddy husk mixed with water) and Masha yusha (soup of black gram) and poured at the base of coconut palm for enhancing the production of good qualtiy coconuts and to increase the size of the nuts.

2.6.3. Ash is prepared from paddy straw and cow dung mixed with Kunapajalam and the residue is poured at the basin of the tree, oil is sprinkled over the residue to increase the size of the banana.

2.6.4. Medicated decoction is prepared from milk, meat, fish, cow dung, red rice (Chenullu), Kinnwam (sedimentation obtained from toddy) mixed with powder of Tila (Sesamum indicum). Pour the same at the basin of Tila (Sesamum indicum). Pour the same at the basin of Dadima (Punica granatum) to enhance the size of the fruit and to make ti soft, fleshy and tasty.

2.6.5. Mixture of Yavam (Hordeum valagre) Krisara (a variety of cooked rice), Tila (Sesmaum indicum) and milk is poured at the basin of the tree mentioned above followed by the application of the paste prepared from Pachotti (Symplocos cochinensis) and honey, then fumigate with Tila (Sesamum indicum), honey and barley for 12 days to increase the yield of fruits.

2.6.6. Pour the mixture of milk and water during the flowering period at the basin of the tree to increase the yield of fruits as mentioned above.

2.6.7. Pour the medicated self generated alcoholic drink at the basin of the tree to increase the yield of fruit.

Relevant prescriptions for the treatment of plant diseases (endogenous disorders) Disease pattern

3.1. Vataja group

3.1.1. Fumigate with leaves of Nirgundi (Vitex negundo).

3.1.2. Fumigate with Guggu (Commiphora mukul), Gritam (clarified butter) and seeds of Karumaruthu (Terminalia tomentatosa).

3.1.3. Pour an infusion prepared from Rasna (Alpinia galanga), Aswagandha (Withania somnifera), Naga kesaram (Mesua ferrea) and Pippali (Piper longum).

3.1.4. Pour a mixture prepared from gritham (clarified butter) along with meat (Mamsa) juice and fat (meda) to pacify Vatadosha.

3.2. Pittaja group

3.2.1. Apply the drugs possessing the properties of seeta veerya (naturally potentiated with cold principle) and madhura rasa (sweet taste) to pacify pitta related disorders.

3.2.2. Pour the medicated decoction prepared from Triphala (Hareethaki- Terminalia chebula), Amalaki (Phyllathus emblica) and Vibhitaki (Terminalia bellerica) mixed with gritham and honey.

3.2.3. Nurture with a mixture prepared from cold and perfumed rose water, Vidanga (Embelica ribes) and sugar.

3.2.4. Fumigate with aromatic substances like Chandanm (Santalum album), Useera (Chrysopogon zizanioides) etc.

3.2.6. Administer substances having sweet taste, unctuous (Snigdha) property (Guna) , along with cold water.

3.2.7. Medicated decoction prepared from Gritha (clarified butter), Thriphala Harithaki (Terminalia chebula), Amalaki (Phyllanthus emblica), Vibhitaki (Terminalia bellirica) along with Madhu (honey).

3.3. Kaphaja group

3.3.1. A paste prepared from Sarshapa (Brassica juncae) and sugar is smeared over the roots and then the plant is irrigated with water mixed with ashes of Tila (Sesamum indicum).

3.3.2. The mud and soil around the tree suffering from Kaphaja diseases is removed and replaced with dry and hard soil.

3.3.3. Pour a infusion prepared with barks of Parisah/Nandi (Ficus arnottina), Udumbara (Ficus racemosa) and Saptaparna (Alstonia scholatis) or Nimba (Azadirachta indica), Vacha (Acorus calamus), Musta (Cyperus rotundus) and Amoora rohithuka (Aphanamixis polystachya).

3.3.4. Dress with the paste prepared from oil cake of Sweta sarshapa (Brassica juncea) over the affected portion of the root and irrigate with the medicated water prepared from the ashes of Sesamum indicum.

3.3.5. Administer pungent (katu) and Thiktha (bitter)/ astringent (Kashaya rasam) taste dominated drugs and Ruksha guna (drying properties) hot water to pacify Kaphaja diseases.

3.3.6. Pour mediacted decoction prepared from Dasamoola root and bark of Vilwa (Aegle marmelos), Ksamari (Gmelia arborea), Syonaka (Oroxylum indicum), Patal (Stereospermum chelonoides), Agnimintha (Clerodendrum phlomidis), Brihati (Solanaum indicum), Brihati (Solanum melongena), Saliparni (Desmodium gangeticum), Prisnaparni (Uraria picta) and Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris) to cure Kapha related diseases.

Treatment of plant pest and diseases (exogenous disorders) Disease conditions

4.1. Attack of Worms/insects

4.1.1. Paste prepared from cow urine, Vidanga (Embelica ribes), Sarshapa(Brassica juncae), Tila (Sesamum indicum) along with fumigated with suitable drugs followed by irrigation with the mixture of milk and water. Apart from having insecticidal/germicidal properties, it acts as growth promoter and enhances profuse flowering and fruiting.

4.1.2. A mixture prepared from the bark of Karnjam (Pongamia pinnata), Aragwatham (Cassia fistula), Arishtam (Azadirachta indica), Saptaparna (Alstonia scholaris) is furthur mixed with Musta (Cyperus rotundus) and Vidanga (Embelica ribes) and cow urine and applied externally over the affected part as insecticide/germicide.

4.1.3. Irrigate with cold water regularly for seven days over the roots, stem and branches.

4.1.4. Irrigate with a mixture prepared from Payah (milk), Kunapajala (liquid manure), Bhillataru (Symplocos racemosa), Vasa(fat), Govid (cow dung) along with water.

4.1.5. Paste is prepared from Vidanga fruit is applied externally.

4.2. Burn

4.2.1 Irrigate with kunapajalam mixed with milk at the basin of the tree.

4.2.2. Medicated paste prepared from Sarasija kandham (Nympheae alba) is smeared over the trunk of the tree to revive the growth.

4.2.3. Smear a paste prepared from Vidhari (Ipomoea digitatat) , Sarkara (jaggery), Nagagihva (Bauhini scandens) and Tila (Sesamum indicum). Then irrigate with the mixture of milk and water.

4.3. Conditioning the reproductive system

4.3.1. Irrigate trees/ plant species, which has flowered/ fruited once and stopped flowering/fruiting further, with the mixture prepared from Kunapajala and milk).

4.4. Dried trees

4.4.1. Irrigate with the medicated decoction prepared from Gritham (clarified butter), Vidanga (Embelica ribes) , along with milk for seven days for the healthy growth of dried branches due to excess or scanty irrigation.

4.4.2. Pour a medicated liquid manure prepared from Sarkara (jaggery), powder of Tila (Sesamum indicum) and Gosheeram (cow milk). Then fumigate with drugs already prescribed.

4.5. Wound healing

4.5.1. A paste prepared from Vidanga (Embelica ribes), Tila (Sesamum indicum), Goutra (cow’s urine), Gritham (clarified butter) and Sidhartha (Brassica juncae) is applied externally followed by spraying milk on the affected part.

4.5.2. Smear a paste prepared from Vata (Ficus benghalensis), Udumbaram (Ficus racemosa), Gomaya (cow dung), Ksoudra (honey) and Gritha (clarified butter) over the affected parts.

4.5.3. Smear a paste prepared from the bark of Dhava (Anogeissus latifolia) Gambhari (Gmelina arborea), Symama (Ipomoea petaloidea), Vetas (salix tetrasperms) and Arjuna (Terminalia cuneata).

4.6. Aneamia (pandu roga)

4.6.1. Irrigate with a mixture of water, Yava (Hordeum vulgare), Godhama (Triticum aestivum), Kshoudra (honey) and Paya (milk).

4.7. Vandhyata (infertility)

4.7.1. Irrigate using Kunapajala mixed with milk. Regular use of this combination makes the plant fertile and help profuse flowering and fruiting

4.7.2. Irrigate with water mixed with the paste prepared from Tila (Sesamum indicum), Yava(Hordeum vulgare), Kulatham(Dolichos biflorus), Masha (Vigna mungo) and Mugda (Vigna radiata). This will help the plant to be fertile and for profuse flowering and fruiting (Purayantyasam- nitya puspaphala).