Solanaceous vegetables Organic

Solanaceous Vegetables

Solanaceous Vegetables (3)

Cereals and millets

CHILLI (Capsicum annuum)

Varieties

High yielding varieties: Jwalasakhi, Jwalamukhi, Jwala, Pant C-1, K-2, Vellayani Athulya and Vellayani Samrudhi (Tolerant to shade and recommended for southern zone of Kerala.)

 

Bacterial wilt resistant varieties: Ujwala, Anugraha.

 

Seed rate: 1.0 kg ha-1

 

Raising seedlings

Chilli is a transplanted crop. Seeds are sown in the nursery and one month old seedlings are transplanted to the main field. For sowing the seeds, raised seed beds of 90 to 100 cm width and of convenient length are prepared to which well decomposed organic matter has been incorporated. After sowing the seeds, mulch with green leaves and irrigate with a rosecan daily in the morning. Remove the mulch immediately after germination of the seeds. Restrict irrigation one week before transplanting and irrigate heavily on the previous day of transplanting.


Time of planting
For a rainfed crop, transplant the seedlings during May-June before the onset of southwest monsoon. Planting can also be done during September-October for an irrigated crop.

 

Land preparation and transplanting
Land is prepared to a fine tilth by thorough ploughing / digging. Well rotten organic manure is incorporated in the soil and seedlings are transplanted in shallow trenches / pits during May or on ridges / level lands during rainy season. Transplanted seedlings may also be given temporary shade for three to four days during summer.

 

Spacing
Transplant less spreading varieties at 45 cm x 45 cm. For spreading cultivars like White Kanthari provide a wider spacing of 75 cm x 45-60 cm.

 

Manuring
Apply well rotten FYM / compost @ 20-25 t ha-1 at the time of land preparation and mix well with the soil. A fertilizer dose of 75:40:25 kg N:P2O5: K2O per ha may be given. Half of nitrogen, full phosphorus and half of potash may be applied as basal dose before transplanting. One fourth of nitrogen and half of potash may be applied 20-30 days after planting. The remaining quantity may be applied two months after planting.

 

Aftercultivation

Irrigate at three to four days interval during summer. Stake the plants if necessary. Weeding followed by fertilizer application and earthing up may be done at one and two months after transplanting.


Plant protection
For avoiding damping off of the seedlings in the nursery, sow the seeds as thin as possible in raised beds prepared in the open area during summer months. Spray nursery and main field with 1per cent Bordeaux mixture at monthly intervals during rainy season. Uproot and destroy the plants affected by bacterial wilt and mosaic.


Cultivate resistant varieties like Ujwala and Anugraha in bacterial wilt prone areas.

 

Spray quinalphos 0.05 per cent for control of mealy bugs and lace wing bugs. Dimethoate at 0.05 per cent is effective for controlling mites, aphids and other sucking insects.

 

Chilli mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus)
It is an important sucking pest infesting all stages of plant. Feeding of mite causes downward curling of the leaves and become brittle and tubular. It can be managed by the application of neem oil 5 per cent and neem oil+garlic emulsion 2 per cent.

 

BRINJAL (Solanum melongena)

Varieties

Surya, Swetha and Haritha (bacterial wilt resistant open pollinated varieties), Neelima (bacterial wilt resistant F1hybrid), Pusa Purple Cluster.

 

Seed rate : 370-500 g ha-1

 

Raising seedlings

Brinjal is a transplanted vegetable. Seeds are sown in the nursery and one month old seedlings are transplanted to the main field. For sowing the seeds, raised seed beds of 90 to 100 cm width and convenient length are prepared in open space with fertile topsoil to which well decomposed organic matter has been incorporated. After sowing the seeds, mulch with green leaves and irrigate with a rose-can daily in the morning. Remove the mulch immediately after germination of the seeds. Restrict irrigation one week before transplanting and irrigate heavily on the previous day of transplanting.

 

Time of planting
For rainfed crop, transplant the seedlings during May-June before the onset of southwest monsoon. Planting can also be done during September-October for irrigated crop.

 

Land preparation and transplanting

Land is prepared to a fine tilth by thorough ploughing or digging. Well rotten organic manure is incorporated in the soil and seedlings are transplanted in shallow trenches/pits during May or on ridges/levelled lands during rainy season. Transplanted seedlings may be given temporary shade for 3-4 days during summer.

 

Spacing

Transplant less spreading varieties like Swetha and Surya at 60 cm x 60 cm. For spreading varieties Haritha and Neelima, provide wider spacing of 75-90 cm x 60 cm.


Manuring

Apply well rotten FYM / compost @ 20-25 t ha-1 at the time of land preparation and mix well with the soil. A fertilizer dose of 75:40:25 kg N:P2O5: K2O per ha may be given. Half the dose of nitrogen, full phosphorus and half of potash may be applied as basal dose before transplanting. One fourth of nitrogen and half of potash may be applied 20-30 days after planting. The remaining quantities may be applied two months after planting. Application of 75:25:25 kg N:P2O5:K2O per ha is optimum for getting maximum yield of fruits for the variety Swetha in the reclaimed alluvial soils of Kuttanad. However, the economic optimum dose was found to be 60:20:25 kg of N:P2O5:K2O per ha.

 

Aftercultivation

Irrigate at three or four days interval during summer. Stake the plants if necessary. Weeding followed by fertilizer application and earthing up may be done at one and two months after transplanting.

 

Plant protection

For avoiding damping off of the seedlings in the nursery, sow the seeds as thin as possible in the raised beds prepared in the open area during summer months.

 

Follow mechanical removal and destruction of pest / disease affected portions for control of fruit and shoot borer and Phomopsis fruit rot. Spray carbaryl 0.15 per cent at an interval of 15-20 days to control fruit and shoot borer under large scale cultivation.

 

Uproot plants affected by little leaf and spray insecticides for further control. Cultivate resistant varieties like Surya, Swetha and Haritha and the hybrid Neelima in bacterial wilt prone areas.

 

For managing root knot nematode, nursery treatment with Bacillus macerans / Paecilliomyces lilacinus @ 25 g/m2 + drenching with the same @ 3 per cent solution 7 days after sowing can be

recommended.


In general, insecticides of plant origin may be used, as far as possible.

TOMATO (Solanum lycopersicum)

Varieties

Bacterial wilt resistant varieties: Sakthi, Mukthi, Anagha and Vellayani Vijai. 

High yielding variety: Pusa Ruby 

Seed rate : 400 g ha-1

Raising seedlings

Tomato is a transplanted vegetable. Seeds are sown in the nursery and one month old seedlings are transplanted to the main field. For sowing the seeds, raised seed beds of 90 to 100 cm width and of convenient length are prepared to which well decomposed organic matter has been incorporated. After sowing the seeds, mulch with green leaves and irrigate with a rose-can daily in the morning. Remove the mulch immediately after germination of the seeds. Restrict irrigation one week before transplanting and irrigate heavily on the previous day of transplanting.


Time of planting
Transplant the seedlings during October-November for an irrigated crop.
 

Land preparation and transplanting

Land is prepared to a fine tilth by thorough ploughing or digging. Well rotten organic manure is incorporated in the soil and seedlings are transplanted in shallow trenches / pits / levelled lands. Transplanted seedlings may be given temporary shade for three to four days during hot days.

Spacing

Transplant the seedlings at 60 cm x 60 cm.

 

Apply well rotten FYM/compost @ 20-25 t ha-1 at the time of land preparation and mix well with the soil. A fertilizer dose of 75:40:25 kg N:P2O5:K2O per ha may be given. Half the dose of nitrogen, full phosphorus and half of potash may be applied as basal before transplanting. One fourth of nitrogen and half of potash may be applied 20-30 days after planting. The remaining quantity may be applied two months after planting.

 

Aftercultivation
Irrigate at two or three days interval. Stake the plants if necessary. Weeding followed by fertilizer application and earthing up may be done at one and two months after transplanting.

 

Plant protection
For avoiding damping off of the seedlings in the nursery, sow the seeds as thin as possible in raised beds prepared in the open area. Spray nursery and main field with 1 per cent Bordeaux mixture at monthly intervals. Uproot and destroy the plants affected by bacterial wilt and mosaic. Cultivate resistant varieties like Sakthi, Mukthi and Anagha in bacterial wilt prone areas.