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  • Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF)

    Inoculation with AMF at the time of planting in the nursery or main filed improves the growth and tolerance of crop against root pathogens, particularly Phytophthora, Pythium, Rhizoctoniaand root nematodes of black pepper, cardamom, ginger, turmeric, cowpea, upland rice and transplanted vegetables.

    On-farm production of Trichoderma

    Bio-control of soil borne plant pathogens involves mass introduction of antagonistic microorganisms in the soil. Trichoderma spp. Is a group of broad-spectrum antagonists subjected to detailed studies for their potential as bio-control agents. They are effective against the foot rot of pepper (T. viride, T. longibrachiatum), rhizome rot of cardamom (T. longibrachiatum, T. virens) and ginger (T. viride). A mixture of neem cake-cow dung mixture is used as food base for Trichoderma spp.

    Dry neem cake and cow dung are to be powdered and mixed at 1:9 ratio to get a coarse texture and then moistened by sprinkling water. Add the commercial preparation of Trichoderma spp. (available I polythene packets) @ 1-2 kg per 100 kg of neem cake-cow dung mixture. After thoroughly mixing, cover it with a perforated polythene sheet or ordinary newspaper and keep it in shade for 4-5 days for multiplication. Again, mix well and keep for three more days for further multiplication. This preparation is ready for incorporation in the soil. Cow dung alone can also be used as the food base; but, since neem cake is found to be a better substrate, a mixture of the two is found better than using cow dung alone. If cow dung alone is used, mixing has to be done at 5 days interval and it will be ready for use only on the 15th day. This Trichoderma incorporated neem cake-cow dung mixture can be used in the potting mixture in nursery beds and in the field.; i.e. wherever cow dung is used as a manure.

    For the management of foot rot of black the above-mentioned mixture of Trichodermaneem cake cow dung can be applied @ 2.5 kg per vine. The mother culture in liquid formulation can be incorporated with sterilized coir pith compost @11 per 20 kg and apply @ 1 kg per wine as above.

    Prophylactic application of Trichoderma is effective for the management of sheath blight of rice. T. viride as Seed treatment (10 g per kg seed) + Soil application (2.5 kg/ha) one week after transplanting + Foliar spray (10 g/l) after one month is effective for the management of sheath blight of rice under upland condition. Seed treatment can be recommended for submerged rice.

    Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Pseudomonas fluorescensare a group of bacteria very effective against disease incited by species of Phytophthora, Pythium, Phizoctonia, Fusarium, Colletotrichum, Ralstonia and Xanthomonas in various crop plants in the nursery as well as in the main filed.

    Isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens have been developed by the Kerala Agricultural University for the disease management and growth promotion of crop plants. This is found highly effective for the management of foot rot and fungal pollu of black pepper, sheath blight and bacterial leaf blight of paddy, bacterial leaf spot and Phytophthra infestation in betel vine, bacterial wilt of solanaceous vegetables, bacterial leaf blight of anthurium, Colletotrichum and Phytophthora infestation in vanilla and rhizome rot of ginger. The organism significantly improves the growth and biomass production of crop plants.

    Application of Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g formulation mixed with 2 kg of well decomposed farmyard manure or compost can be applied in the basin of pepper wine in the field for the control foot root of black pepper.

    PGPR mix II

    It is a consortium of highly compatible rhizobacteria having broad spectrum of inhibitory property with different mechanisms. Bacteria promote plant growth and have better ability to multiply and persist in varying soil conditions. Effective against all fungal and bacterial plant pathogens of crop plants. Application method and schedule are similar to that of P. fluoresces. If not compatible, apply Trichoderma as enriched organic manure and Pseudomonas fluorescensseparately as spray and drench.

  • Prior to deciding which soil-feeding regimen to choose, find out the nature and pH of your soil. Its pH majorly influences the plants and cultivation techniques you opt for.

  • Organic farmers favor organic fertilizers because the chemicals contained in them do not harm the soil. Many compound fertilizers bear the label ‘organic-based’ or ‘semi-organic’ fertilizers. When compared to their inorganic counterparts, organic fertilizers are very powerful, but are considerably low in potash content, which is why you need to add potassium Sulphate when you use these fertilizers. Let us discus some of these fertilizers.

  • Most fertilizers contain varying amounts of the three essential plant foods: nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. On the label of commercial fertilizer bags, the elements are listed in the order given above. A bag of fertilizer listed as 10-15-20, for example would contain 10 percent nitrogen, 15 percent phosphorus, and 20 percent potassium.